Mintzbergs Model on Organisational Structures

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Mintzbergs Model on Organisational Structures
The Five Parts
This note summarises the key features of Henri Mintzbergs theory on the structuring of organisations, which he presented in his book The Structuring of Organisations and Structure in 5's: Designing Effective Organizations in the early 1980s. According to Mintzberg organisations are formed of five main parts:

Operating core
Those who perform the basic work related directly to the production of products and services Strategic apex
Charged with ensuring that the organisation serve its mission in an effective way, and also that it serve the needs of those people who control or otherwise have power over the organisation Middle-line managers

Form a chain joining the strategic apex to the operating core by the use of delegated formal authority Technostructure
The analysts who serve the organisation by affecting the work of others. They may design it, plan it, change it, or train the people who do it, but they do not do it themselves Support staff
Composed of specialised units that exist to provide support to the organisation outside the operating work flow  
Pressures
Each of these five parts has a tendency to pull the organisation in a particular direction favourable to them

* Strategic Apexes – centralisation
* Support Staff - collaboration
* Technostructures - standardisation
* Operating Core – professionalisation
* Middle Line - balkanisation
Five Generic Structures
There are five generic organisation structures which can be described in terms of the five-part theory: * Simple structure,
* Machine bureaucracy,
* Professional bureaucracy,
* Divisionalised form,
* Adhocracy.
Simple Structure

The simple structure, typically, has
* little or no technostructure, few support staffers,
* a loose division of labour, minimal differentiation among its units, and a small managerial hierarchy. * The behaviour of simple structure is not formalised and planning, training, and liaison devices are minimally used in such structures. Coordination in the simple structure is controlled largely by direct supervision. Especially, power over all important decisions tends to be centralized in the hands of the chief executive officer. Thus, the strategic apex emerges as the key part of the structure. Indeed, the structure often consists of little more than a one-person strategic apex and an organic operating core Most organizations pass through the simple structure in their formative years. The environments of the simple structures are usually simple and dynamic. A simple environment can be comprehended by a single individual, and so enables decision making to be controlled by that individual. A dynamic environment means organic structure: Because its future state cannot be predicted, the organization cannot effect coordination by standardization Machine Bureaucracy

The design of a machine bureaucracy tends to be as follows:
* highly specialised, routine operating tasks;
* very formalised procedures in the operating core;
* a proliferation of rules, regulations, & formalised communication; * large-sized units at the operating level;
* reliance on the functional basis for grouping tasks;
* relatively centralised power for decision making;
* an elaborate administrative structure with sharp distinctions between line and staff. Because the machine bureaucracy depends primarily on the standardization of its operating work processes for coordination, the technostructure emerges as the key part of the structure Machine bureaucratic work is found, in environments that are simple and stable. Machine bureaucracy is not common in complex and dynamic environments because the work of complex environments can not be rationalized into simple tasks and the processes of dynamic environments can not be predicted, made repetitive, and standardized The machine bureaucracies are typically found...
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