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|Saadat Hassan Manto | |File:Saadat hasan manto.jpg | |Born |Hassan | | |May 11, 1912 | | |Samrala, Ludhiana district, Punjab,British India | |Died |January 18, 1955 (aged 42) | | |Lahore, Punjab, Pakistan | |Occupation |story writer, screenwriter | |Years active |1934-1955 | |Awards |Nishan-e-Imtiaz |
Saadat Hassan Manto (Punjabi, Urdu: سعادت حسن منٹو) (May 11, 1912 – January 18, 1955) was a short story writer of the Urdu language. He is best known for his short stories, "Bu" (Odour), "Khol Do" (Open It), "Thanda Gosht" (Cold Meat), and his magnum opus, "Toba Tek Singh".
Manto was also a film and radio scriptwriter and a journalist. He published twenty-two collections of short stories, one novel, five collections of radio plays, three collections of essays, and two collections of personal sketches.
Manto was tried for obscenity six times, thrice before 1947 and thrice after 1947 in Pakistan, but never convicted. Some of his works have been translated in other languages.
| [hide] | |1 The writing of Manto | |2 Biography | |2.1 Early life and education | |2.2 Early career | |2.3 Migration to Pakistan | |2.4 Life in Lahore | |2.5 Literary beginnings | |2.6 Newspapers | |2.7 Literary circles | |2.8 Financial troubles | |2.9 A changed man | |2.10 His famous literary works | |2.11 Death | |3 Manto collection (books) | |4 Further reading | |5 Manto's works online | |6 Notes | |7 References | |8 External links |
The writing of Manto
Manto chronicled the chaos that prevailed, during and after the Partition of India in 1947.
Since he started his literary career translating works of literary giants, such as Victor Hugo, Oscar Wilde and Russian writers such as Chekov and Gorky, their collective influence made him search for his own moorings. This search resulted in his first story, "Tamasha", based on the Jallianwala Bagh massacre at Amritsar. Though his earlier works, influenced by the progressive writers of his times, showed a marked leftist and socialist leanings, his later work progressively became stark in portraying the darkness of the human psyche, as humanist values progressively declined around the Partition. His final works, which grew from the social climate and his own financial struggles, reflected an innate sense of human impotency towards darkness and contained a satirism that verged on dark comedy, as seen in his final great work, Toba Tek Singh. It not only showed the influence of his own demons, but also that of the collective madness that he saw in the ensuing decade of his...