Minimization of Losses in Hvdc Distribution System

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  • Topic: Electric power transmission, Transformer, Electricity distribution
  • Pages : 22 (6687 words )
  • Download(s) : 75
  • Published : February 21, 2013
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TABLE OF CONTENTS

CHAPTER -1 INTRODUCTION Pages

1.1 Overview

1.2 Power System

1.3 Distribution system

1.3.1 Losses in the distribution system

1.3.2 Reasons for high transmission and distribution Losses

1.3.3 Loss reduction techniques

1.4 Optimization and network reconfiguration

CHAPTER-2 LITERATURE REVIEW

CHAPTER-3 HVDS

3.1 Introduction

3.2 Types of HVDS

3.3 Advantages of HVDS

CHAPTER-4 GENETIC ALGORITHM

CHAPTER -5

5.1 Problem formulation

5.2 Objective of the work

5.3 Future scope

REFERENCES

CHAPTER:1

INTRODUCTION

1.1 Overview:

Economic development of a country depends on the energy availability and its consumption. In nature energy exists in different form but the most important form is the electrical energy. If the supply of electrical energy halts even for few minutes, many necessary functions of present-day life stop. Electrical energy has played a great role in building up of present day civilization. Electrical energy has made our life easier, comfortable and saves our time. Now there is shorter working day and technology based on electricity resulted in a higher agricultural and industrial production, and better transportation facilities. Even the standard of living of a person is decided by its energy consumption. In fact, the greater the per capita consumption of energy in a country, the higher is the standard of living of its people. Today modern society is so much dependent upon the use of electrical energy that it has become an important part of our life. Earlier it was not so, electricity was used for the basic purpose of light and heat and thus there was little demand for electrical energy and it was easy for the power companies to meet their demand. But in today’s modern world, energy demand is increasing day by day and to meet this ever increasing demand power companies are making every effort to increase the energy availability. About 30 to 40 % of total investments in the electrical sector go to distribution systems, but nevertheless, they have not received the technological impact in the same manner as the generation and transmission systems. Modern distribution system is constantly being faced with ever growing load demand, this increase in load demand results into increase burden and reduced voltage. The distribution network has also a typical feature that the voltage at buses reduces as it moves away from substation. This decrease in voltage is mainly due to insufficient amount of reactive power. Thus, to improve voltage profile and to voltage collapse reactive compensation is required. It is seen that distribution losses are high as compared to transmission system. To improve efficiency of power delivery in distribution system various arrangements can be worked out like network configuration, shunt capacitor placements etc. As these shunt capacitors supply reactive power demand which in turn reduces current and MVA in lines. Installation of capacitors helps in reducing energy losses, peak demand losses and improvement in voltage profiles, power factor of the system and system stability. However, to achieve these objectives, sizes and location of capacitors and economy should be decided.

1.2 POWER SYSTEM:
Electric power is normally generated at 11 kV in a power station. As the load centers are located at a far distance from the generating station, thus there is a need to transmit the electric power from generating station to the load centre. To transmit power over long distances, it is then stepped-up to 400kV, 220kV or 132kV as per requirement. Power is carried through a transmission network of high voltage lines. Usually, these lines run into hundreds of kilometers and deliver the power into a common...
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