Mini-Report: How Do Scientists Report Data? “Determination of the Empirical Formula of an Unknown Lead Oxide”

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Mini-Report: How Do Scientists Report Data?
“Determination of the Empirical Formula of an Unknown Lead Oxide” By: Dr. C. Steven Joiner
In this paper, they walk through and explain the process known as smelting. The experiment demonstrates the historical process known as smelting and could theoretically be used to determine the empirical formula of other metal oxides found in nature. This paper explains how the process of smelting and how metals can be extracted from their ores. This is because a few metals can be found in their elemental forms in nature. It explains the process which involves the use of a chemical reaction to isolate the metal in its elemental form from an ionic compound which includes the metal as a salt. Smelting goes through the process of oxidation-reduction (redox) chemistry. In normal smelting reactions, a sacrificial reducing agent is added to the mineral ore. The reducing agent is oxidized (loses electrons), and the metal cation from the ore gains electrons or becomes reduced. In result this allows the elemental metal to be isolated. During this reaction, it shows that a metal is reduced from a cation with a positive charge to a neutral element, and carbon is oxidized from the neutral element to carbon dioxide. In an experiment, a chemical formula was found by smelting lead oxide to form elemental lead, which results in an unbalanced chemical reaction. The number of moles of lead was determined by measuring the mass of the lead at the end of the experiment. Applying the law of conservation of mass, this allows the number of moles of oxygen that can be calculated. Both of these outcomes, which is the empirical formula, and high possibility of the identity of the sample can be named.

Then it leads to the process in which lead oxide can be weighed and heated properly. They also caution and take in to consideration the dangers of the experiment, when working with methane gas, which is highly flammable and dangerous. This ensures that...
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