The Great Ming dynasty has been a dynasty where the basis of its rulings and organizations have been derived from Confucian ideals. Its Emperors held titles as the "Son of Heaven", making them almost deities who should possess the wisdom as well as integrity to oversee such an enormous and centralized empire. Still, in 1644, the Hans were overtaken by a growing power the of brave warriors on horseback who had an expertise of western firearms. The Great Ming dynasty, arguably China's most flourishing period of scholarship, arts and capitalist market economy ushered in a new ethnic ruling class, the Manchus.
Although the year of the official Ming-Qing transition was recorded in 1644, the fractioning and deterioration of Ming government had started a long time before that according to historians. While Huang Zhong-Hsi would attribute the fall of the Ming to its lack of order to Confucius ideals by drawing the contrast between Confucian ideologies and the human predicament, Ray Hwang's book 1587, A Year of No Significance details the initial deterioration and corruption within the Ming government prior to 1644. Above all, both Hwang and Huang would agree that the fall of Ming was a result of Ming rulers internal struggle between giving in to their indulgent, greedy human nature versus practicing virtuous Confucius ideologies. The fall of Ming is the inevitable result of factions within the government and many of its rulers drive to be self-serving instead of serving their nation along with the moral deterioration of China's influential society at the time. Although The Ming's failure of mastery of western artillery gave way to the conquering of the Manchus on the battlefield, the fall of Ming would have been an inevitable fate with or without the invasive force.
Huang's book Waiting for the Dawn is a description of Confucius ideologies where he addresses different demographics within the Ming government and schools on how they ought to behave according to...
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