Mineral, Indusrt, Water Inflows and River System, Agriculture and Forest Type of Bangladesh

Topics: Bangladesh, Chittagong, Bay of Bengal Pages: 11 (4451 words) Published: May 1, 2013
Bangladesh Studies
Assignment No. : 02 Date of Submission: 30.4.2013

Submitted to:
Nuzhat Nuery
Department of Marketing Faculty of Business Studies University of Dhaka Submitted by: Shatabdi Sinha Roll-01 Sec-A

Water Inflows:
Bangladesh is noted for its estuarine environment, yet less than 10% of its total water flow originates from its own catchments and rest comes from India, Nepal and Bhutan. Normally, 20% of the country gets flooded during the monsoon period. Water is one of the important natural resources of Bangladesh. The rainfall during the monsoon (June-October) varies between 125 cm in the northwest region and 400 cm in the northeast. This immense quantity of surface water flows through the major rivers and overflows their banks. Moreover, the huge quantity of water coming from neighboring country during the same time often aggravates the situation, giving rise to floods in the country. Irrigation coverage has increased considerably from about 2.65 million ha in 1990/91 to about 4.0 million ha in 1996/97. Ground water irrigation covered 64.5% of the total irrigated area while surface water accounted for only about 31.5% in 1996/97. Irrigation expansion is projected to reach 5.037 million ha in 2001-2002 which is about 67% of the total potential irrigable area of 7.56 million ha. Bangladesh is endowed with plenty of surface and groundwater resources. The surface water resources comprise water available from flowing rivers and static water bodies as ponds, beels and haors. Surface water inflows of the country vary from a maximum of about 140,000 m3/s in August to a minimum of about 7,000 m3/s in February. Two main rivers, the brahmaputra and the ganges account for more than 80% of streamflows. The highest flood discharge of the Ganges observed at hardinge bridge in1987 was 76,000 m3/s and that of the Brahmaputra observed at Bahadurabad in 1988 was 98,600 m3/s. the minimum discharges of the rivers are 261 m3/s and 2800 m3/s, respectively. The average daily flow of the Ganges is about 10,874 m3/s, which reduces to 1366 m3/s during season and increases to 32,00 m3/s. The highest flow is about 44,000 m3/s which is usually received in August. The annual average discharge of the Meghna at Bhairab Bazar is approximately 4,800 m3/s and the maximum flow occurs generally around mid August. The alluvial aquifer systems of Bangladesh are some of the most productive groundwater reservoirs. The aquifer system generally consists of three lithological units, an upper silty clay and silt layer, a middle layer of fine to very fine sand, and a lower layer of fine to coarse sand constituting the main aquifer. The upper layer is usually 30 to 60 m thick, the middle layer is about 20 m thick and lower aquifer is about 100 m thick. The transmissibility of the main aquifer ranges from 500 to 2500 m2/day and the storage coefficient varies from less that one percent to 15 percent. At places water table can be found within a few meters below the ground surface. Bangladesh also receives plenty of rainfall in the monsoon extending from June to October....
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