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  • Topic: Millenarianism, Philippine Constabulary
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*Reporters: Dizon*, Onglao, *Syling*, Ty
History 166
Belief in a coming major transformation of society (+, -, or ambiguous direction) -Entails organizing a group to promote change; believes their leader is a savior Factors and Conditions

Establish “sacred sites”
Establish alternative communities
Divine Intervention
Equality, Camaraderie, Brotherhood, and Religiosity
History of Rural Communities
Pre Spanish: Barangay system that had a 4 tier class system Spanish: Adaptation rather mutation
American: Peasant unrest due to absentee unrest and gap widening between the rich and the poor History of Religion
Pre Spanish: greatly dependent on Divination
Spanish: colonization was done through priests rather than soldiers Rural Problems
Endless variations in tenant and labor patterns
2 Types
KASAMA: Share Tenancy
*Kasama* System
Kasama or Aparceria: deeply embedded in rice growing regions Land owners furnished the paddies
Tenants proide labor, tools, & animals who assumed liability for half the costs in unhusked rice production Remainder of the expenses was divided equally among the 2 parties Inquilinato System

Lands were leased to inquilinos
Leased annually called canon
Bore all risk in farming
Hired overseers to take charge of land
Regular improvements and increase in the annual rental fees Living Conditions
Some farmers supplemented their family earnings by migratory labors People born on haciendas had lower wages but better benefits Concerned with collecting profits rather than good output Landlords control the world where peasants live in

Interest Rates
Payments were due on a 6-month basic; Inability to pay results in rates doubled To repay the kasamas’ debts, farmers were performing a variety of manual activities Family debts: Young children of tenants were sent to employment agencies Absentee ownerships made employers completely heartless Celebrations such as fiestas gave an illusion of abundance CASES

1. Guardia De Honor
Founded by Dominican friars in Manila to uphold orthodox Catholicism Devotion to the Mother of God, promotion of values and popular participation in Church functions Julian Baltazar

Also known as Apo Laqui
means Old Grandfather, Leader of the Millenarian Movement His blind wife was treated as a goddess
The Millenarian Movement
Was told that the only salvation from the deluge, an apocalyptic pronouncement, is to migrate to Sta. Ana Was disbanded by the guards and parish priests, but to no avail. Followers returned to Urdaneta, the house of Apo Laqui Was able to recruit more members with Laqui’s brush with the government Took over the Church’s effort to control the Guardia De Honor Asked helped from Guardia Urdaneta’ directorate and Pangasinan government but was rejected Resorted to prayer to end the movement

Community Laqui reestablished after death of his wife with Antonio Valdez Was courted by the Katipunans but ultimately rejected them due to problems with Katipunan’s leadership and secularism Civil guards were able to occupy the area and arrested Laqui & his men *Los A*graviados

A new revolution formed by Valdez after Laqui’s death
Means the oppressed but was really considered as bandits Had a 3 corner rivalry between the Spaniards and Katipuneros Had control over the barrios while Katipuneros controlled the towns Valdez, sensing a stalemate, resorted to stepping forth as Catholicism champion which allowed him to gain an impressive military force...
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