“Migration within a country’s borders have greater negative impacts at their origin than their destination”. Discuss the statement [15 marks]
* Definition of migration and internal migration
* Reasons why people move (Push/Pull Factors)
* Explain Lee’s migration model
* Types of Internal Migration (Inter-urban, Intra-urban, counter urbanisation, urbanisation) Body
* Social. Economic. Environmental. Political. (S.E.E.P.) impacts * Case Study (Statistics)
* China (urbanisation)
* London to St. Ives (counter urbanisation)
* Negative impacts at origin
* Negative impacts at destination
* Recognize that there are also positive impacts
* Which one is the greater impact, origin or destination
* Solution (brief)
Migration is the movement of people to establish a new permanent place of residence. The UN defines ‘permanent’ as a movement of over a year. Internal migration is the permanent relocation of population within a country. People choose or are forced to migrate due to reasons; these are called push and pull factors. Push factors are negative conditions at the point of origin, which encourages people to move, such as war, famine and natural disaster. Pull factors are positive conditions at the point of destination, which encourages people to move, such as better job opportunities, stable economy and higher life expectancy.
Migration can be shown in diagrams one is called. Lee’s migration model which is a model that shows the push, pull and neutral factors in both origin and destination, the model also shows the restraining factors, which are conditions that you like about the place that you live in that might stop you from moving, these conditions could be social, health, economical, environmental and political, such as religion, family pressures, political differences and national policy. There are many types of internal migration; such as inter-urban which is migration from one urban area to another, intra-urban which is migration within an urban area.
When a person or a household migrates, there will be impacts occurring at both the origin and their destination. The impacts can be categorised as social, economic, environmental and political. In China, migrant workers make up one tenth of the country’s population experiences rural to urban migration constantly, for example migrant workers from the countryside migrating to the big urban cities.
China’s migrant workers have left their rural farmland and migrate to the big cities in hope to have better job opportunity; the movement is called a rural to urban migration. This creates a number of social effects in the rural area such as children being left alone with less parental guidance and support and most of the migrant workers are male with a decrease in the male population there will be less which will affect the safety of children, whereas in the city migrant workers can help to increase the diversity of people in the city.
With the presence of migrant workers in the urban cities the country has received lots of economic impacts such as the migrants working as construction and factory workers, and this has caused cheap labour. As the amount of migrants increases so does the cheap labour and so more production will results in a stable economy. But with the great success in the urban destination, the rural areas receive negative economic impacts such as a shortage of economically active people (16-65) to help support the community.
The movement of workers form the countryside to the urban cities has caused a lot of negative political impacts in both the rural and urban area. In rural areas the migration will cause a lack in funding for farming as the number of farmers has decreased, when the people arrive in the urban area and most are able to obtain a job as construction or factory workers which mostly are...
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