Migration and Rural Development

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SEMINAR PAPER
FOMT 1.2: Forest-Related Development and Land Use Policy
Seminar Topic: Migrations and effects on Rural Development - A Case of Ghana

Supervisor: Prof. Jurgen Pretzch

Submitted by:
By

Ataa- Asantewaa Martha
(Student of M.Sc. Tropical Forestry and Management)
Submitted to the Institute for International Forestry and Forest Products, Faculty of Forest-Geo-and-Hydro Sciences, TU Dresden

2012
Abstract
Migration continues to dominate discussion on both social and political platforms in recent times owing to its anticipated role in development and globalization. Ghana, a major fore runner in both demographic and social-economic issues, has a long history of migration. In this paper, the dynamics of Ghana’s migration is critically reviewed detailing the cause factors, history as well as its impact on rural development.

Contents
Abstracti
1.0 Introduction1
2.0 Objectives1
3.0 Research Questions and Methodology2
4.0 Literature Review2
4.1 History of Ghana’s migration; The Pattern2
4.2 Migration in Ghana: The impetus.5
4.3 Migrant dynamics6
4.4 Positive impact of migration7
4.5 Negative impact of migration8
5.0 Discussion9
6.0 Conclusion11
REFERENCES11

1.0 Introduction
Migration is an old phenomenon with increasing complexity. Its origin predates the arrival of first human race. However, with time, the scale of migration has assumed a new dimension and dynamism making it a defining development and globalization issue dominating both political and socio-economic platforms, the world over (Awumbila et al, 2008, Vargas-Lundius et al, 2008). In Ghana, migration persists in dynamic and complex ways as in other regions across Africa and elsewhere with its historical precedence. Mobility within and outside Ghana has been traced back to pre-colonial times and it is currently directed more towards a surviving strategy. However, the impetus for migration remains complex to define as it varies greatly at the individual and locality levels. Migration in Ghana during early times had been much prompted by trade, agriculture activities, ethnic ties, ethnic conflicts and economic and social disparities between the north and south. Political instability, severe economic hardships and growing backwash effect of failed regional dualism are the more recent additions to the impetus for migrating (Anarfi et al, 2003, Twumasi-Ankrah1995). The area of great change as history proceeds are perhaps aspects related to migrant in terms of volume and destination (Boahen 1975, Addae-Mensah 1983, Anarfi et al 2003). Today, 56 per cent of Ghanaians are said to be internal migrants with majority of them migrating to rural localities (GLSS 5). According to a 2008 report by Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Ghanaians are doted around some 33 countries around the globe amounting to some 1.5 million (Boahen 2005) to 3 million (Black et al 2003) in population with 71 per cent residing in the West African sub-region(Quartey 2009). Migration, whether internal or international, has a significant capacity to modifying cultural, social, traditional and economic fibers of rural societies and as such recognized as a major force for development and poverty reduction. Remittances and its spending effects, modernization, labour replacement, chain migration and insurance are but routes of migration in development. Nevertheless, negative impacts of migration such as brain drain, compromise in agricultural development, food insecurity, unemployment, and the nefarious scenes that migration creates in cities are much to worry about (Lucas 2007, Twumasi-Ankrah 1995, Vargas-Lundius et al 2008) 2.0 Objectives

This paper therefore seeks to understand the route of migration in rural development by examining the dynamism in its history. Specific objectives:
* Identify the push and pull factors
* Examine the dynamics of Ghanaian migration
* Identify the links between migration and rural...
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