Middle Years Development

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SPB008
MIDDLE YEARS
STUDENTS AND SCHOOLS

NAME:TRISHA BENNELL-KLING

DATE: 16 SEPTEMBER, 2011

Table of Contents
Introduction3

SOCIOCULTURAL PERSPECTIVES4

PHYSIOLOGICALPERSPECTIVES5

NEUROLOGICAL PERSPECTIVES6

PSYCHOLOGICAL PERSPECTIVES 7

IMPLICATIONS FOR TEACHERS8

CONCLUSION10

REFERENCES11

WORD COUNT: 2027
essay question
Early adolescence is a significant time of human development. Discuss the sociocultural, physiological, neurological and psychological impacts upon early adolescents and what you believe to be the implications for teachers in the middle years of school.

Introduction

Early adolescence encompasses a diverse range of development, emotions, growth and learning. This can be categorised into the following: Sociocultural, physiological, neurological and psychological. It is the responsibility of middle years educators to be familiar with the stages of development and in particular demonstrate understanding of Vygotsky’s Zone of Proximal Development (Pendergast and Bahr, 2010). It should be the pedagogy of all middle years teachers to establish relationships with students and their families offer students an engaging education and model sensitivity and acceptance of the students especially during adolescent development.

This essay will touch on theoretical knowledge and understanding, practical research and identifiable characteristics of middle years students. Middle years educators should consider the implications and how pedagogical practice should be influenced to ensure a holistic educational experience for early adolescent students.

SOCIOCULTURAL PERSPECTIVES
“As children move into early adolescence, they begin to appreciate that people can have mixed feelings about events and other individuals. They realise that people may simultaneously have multiple, and possibly conflicting, intentions” (Pendergast 2010, p. 468).

As students approach the middles years of school, ages 9 to 14, it becomes noticeable that students are developing their personalities and opinions. Whilst this is strengthens some friendships it also may dissolve others. The students in the middle years classroom quickly identify peers and develop biases and prejudices. Sadly these prejudices can lead to serious consequences and the development of unhealthy social-cognitive prejudice, which can lead to the exclusion, and discrimination of some students (Pendergast and Bahr, 2010). Carrington argues that adolescents are exposed to adult practices and popular culture as well as having a decreased amount of parental or adult supervision. One can deduce from this that adolescents are making judgments that are not properly formed and this can have an impact on relationships both in and out of school (Carrington, 2010). Kroger (2007), Moll and Arnot-Hopffer (2005) state that adolescents are establishing more mature identities and view points. it is the teacher’s role to unbiased political view of the world to assist students in accepting and engaging in many opinions and beliefs.

Erickson argues that free will can lead to a paradox, namely, that an adolescent would rather act shamelessly in the eyes of his elders, out of free choice, than be forced into activities which would be shameful in his own eyes or in those of his peers (1968, p 147). This theory can be applied to today’s middle school due to very influential factors in sociocultural perspectives such as pop-culture and the immediate environment (Carrington, 2011). Popular culture sets a trend in which it is made popular by a select few in the middle years cohort. This leads to adolescents are striving for individuality within the confines of their environment and social acceptance.

Peer interaction and collaborative learning can assist in forming relationships, connect experiences and develop higher order...
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