Krishia Marie P. Tadena
IS 41 – XB
Chapter 1: The Making of Middle East Politics
The Middle East is made up of 20 countries with a population of about 320 million people. The vast majority of people living in all Middle East countries save Israel are Muslim. Indeed, a majority of the world’s Muslims live outside of the Middle East. Clearly, then, there is considerable distinction in the region when it comes to land, population, and indicators of development. One of the main things the discipline of comparative politics studies is the type of governmental system a country has. Systems of government in the Middle East are almost without exception authoritarian which means leaders are not selected through free and fair elections, and a relatively narrow group of people control the state apparatus and are not held accountable for their decisions by the broader public. Political rights refer to characteristics such as free and fair elections for the chief executive and the legislature; the ability of citizens to organize in multiple political parties and compete in elections free from interference by the military, religious or other powerful groups. Civil liberties refers to the freedom of expression or more likely to be referred as individual rights. The establishment and spread of Islam began in the 17th century C.E. Two empires dominated the middle east – The Sasanids (Iraq and Iran) and the Byzantines (Anatolian Empire). Muhammad – a young caravan trader became the prophet of Islam. The last great Islamic empire was the Ottoman empire. Founded by Turkic tribes. Sharia – Islamic law. Ulama – clerics. Nationalism became a powerful ideology. It inspired many of the Ottomans’ subject peoples to secede. European Imperialism in the Middle East
Britain’s footprint in the Middle East turned on two main concerns: securing access to regional oil supplies and protecting key access routes to India Several countries in the region escaped the yoke of direct...
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