Secular Clergy: Pope, Cardinals, Archbishops, Priests
Monks and Friars: some were priests, some live in monestaries, others wander from place to place ministering to the lower classes.
Nuns : live in convents
TYPES OF REIGIOUS ORDERS:
Benedictines – 6th century founded
Templars and Hospitalers: founded during crusades, were knights and monks, cared for sick and injured in holy land
Franciscans: founded by St Francis of Assisi and were begging friars who wandered from place to place and ministered to lower class – made compassionate by acts
Dominicans: 13th century founding as well by St Dominic, same as Franciscans BUT educated and wandered among the upper class and combated heresy.
4 POWERS OF THE CHURCH:
INTERDICTION TAXATION OWN LAND AND RULE – ABOVE ANY LAW OF LAND
4 PROBLEMS WITH THE CHURCH:
LAY INVESTITURE: appointment of church offices by rulers instead of by church officials
WORLDLY LIVES OF CLERGY: Priests, Bishops, Archbishops owning a great deal of property and acting wealthy including having affairs outside of church
SIMONY: Appointing relatives to church positions
HERESY: Speaking out against the church – contradicting church doctrine.
Lay investiture was settled at the Concordat of Worms , others settled at Council of Trent.
EFFECTS OF THE 100 YRS WAR:
France- countryside was devistated
England began a Civil War
Creation of the Longbow, Firearms,
Feudal Soldiers were replaced by National Armies that would be supported and maintained for security
FRANCE – wanted Burgondy and got into war w/ Swiss over it and lost – Created the Province of Flanders and France got ½ of it.
ENGLAND- War of the Roses – Lancaster Family (red rose) family symbol vs York Family (white rose) Edward Duke of york wanted to overthrow Lancaster Dynasty and become Edward the 4th. He died in 1483 and his 2 sons claimed the throne – but Eds brother Richard locked the 2 boys in the tower of London – boys... [continues]
Cite This Essay
(2012, 03). Middle Ages. StudyMode.com. Retrieved 03, 2012, from http://www.studymode.com/essays/Middle-Ages-936898.html
"Middle Ages" StudyMode.com. 03 2012. 03 2012 <http://www.studymode.com/essays/Middle-Ages-936898.html>.
"Middle Ages." StudyMode.com. 03, 2012. Accessed 03, 2012. http://www.studymode.com/essays/Middle-Ages-936898.html.