Garlic (Allium sativum L.) is one of the most important bulb crops grown and widely used as a spice or a condiment throughout India. The genus Allium is a diverse taxon comprising of nearly 500 species and belonging to family Alliaceae. Herbalists worldwide consider Garlic as one of the most important herbal medicines. It has been used both as food and medicine in many cultures for thousands of years. Organic Garlic has an acrid, warm taste, and a disagreeable, pungent odor. Its antiseptic properties for healing wounds to acting as an inhibitor of diseases, have been proven and research into garlic's value continues till date. It contains a collection of sulfur and selenium aroma compounds which protect the plant from predators as well as soil-born organisms. Most of the medicinal effects of garlic are referable to a sulphur compound known as allicin. The intact garlic clove does not contain allicin but rather its precursor, the non protein amino acid alliin. Alliin is converted to allicin, pyruvate and ammomia by the enzyme alliinase.
Garlic contains enzymes, vitamin Bs, flavonoids and certain minerals, and that it is a good source of antioxidants; protein; minerals like calcium, copper, iron, manganese, phosphorus, potassium and selenium; as well as vitamins such as vitamin A, vitamin B1 (thiamine), vitamin B2 (riboflavin), vitamin B6 and vitamin C.
The planting differs from region to region. In Gujarat, planting of Garlic is done during October-November. In Maharashtra, M.P., Karnataka & A.P., it is planted from August to October and in northern part of India September to November. As per Food and Agriculture Organisation (FAO) record for 2008-09 India ranks second in area (1.71 lakh hectares ) and production “(5.93 lakh tons) of garlic, next to China. Haryana accounts for 11,000 metric tonnes of production with a yield of 12.50 tons/ha (NHRDF), NASHIK, 2009). Over last 25 years the production of garlic has increased from 2.16 to 5.93 lakh tons....
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