Microbiology Notes

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gyMicrobiology: is a study of microorganisms (microbes, germs) and their activities Microorganism: An organism or a virus too small to be seen without a microscope (smaller than 0.5mm) Misconceptions of Microorganisms

* All microorganisms are pathogenic (disease producing) FALSE * The majority of bacteria are harmless and beneficial TRUE Aspects of microbiology
* Basic biological science
* About living cell and how they work
* About microbial diversity and their evolution
* Applied biological science
* What microorganisms do; their role in the nature?
* Causative agents of various infectious diseases
* Biodegradation, cycling of the matter
* Industrial processes based on microbial action
Microorganisms provide a good model system
* They are small, easy to handle
* Biochemical pathways identical to those plants/animals
* Short generation time
Branches of Microbiology
* Agricultural Microbiology
* Legumes + N2-fixing microorganisms
* Fix nitrogen in the air and transform into a usable form * Microorganisms have important role in cycling plant nutrients (N, P, C, S) * Cattle production depend on rumen microorganisms

Food and other products manufactured via microbial activity
* Dairy products (yogurt, cheese)
* Sauerkraut, pickles
* Sausages
* Bread
* Beer, wine
* Etc.
Genetic Engineering
* Manipulation of genetics of microbes in order to create new products Food Microbiology
* Food Quality
Aquatic Microbiology
* Water quality
* What type of water should not be in the pool?
Microorganisms and Energy
* Natural Gas (methane) produced by activity of methanogenic bacteria. * Microalgae can be used as a source of biofuels
Impact of Microbes on Earth
* The first organisms on the planet Earth (5 billion years ago) * Ubiquitous – can be found everywhere
* Photosynthesis
* Oxygen production
* Primary production
* Synthesis of organic matter
* Decomposition
Human Use of Microorganisms
* Extraction of metals from the ore by bacteria
* Manufacturing drugs and other products – fermentor
* Detoxification – bioremediation of the oil spill. Some microorganism can break down toxic waste into less harmful substances The Impact of Microorganisms on Human Health
* Microorganisms as disease agents
* Microorganisms live inside our bodies
* Normal microflora
* Beneficial; helps fight bad microbes
* Pathogenic
* Our body resists the invasion of pathogenic microbes by * Skin
* Mucous membrane
* Stomach acid
* Kills most
* Antimicrobial chemicals – interferons
* Introduction of antibiotics changed the rate of death rates for the leading causes of death Cell Types: two basic cells types
* Prokaryotic
* Bacteria
* Archea
* Eukaryotic
* Fungi
* Protozoa
* Algae (helimints, plants, animals)
** Major difference – organization of nuclear structure ** * Viruses
Cellular Organization
* Prokaryotic
* Cell envelope
* Nucleoid
* Eukaryotic
* Cell envelope
* Organelles
* Nucleus
* Do not have cellular structure
* One type of nucleic acid; DNA or RNA
* Can reproduce only when inside a host cell
* Parasites
Microbial Dimensions
* Prokaryotic cells
* 1-10 micrometers (µ)
* Eukaryotic cells
* 10-100 micrometers (µ)
* Virus
* 10-100 nanometers
Lifestyle of Microbes:
* Autotrophs
* Have mechanisms by which they provide their own food * Heterotrophs
* Use already made organic matter
* Parasites (tapeworm)
(Day 2)
Naming and Classifying Microorganisms
* Classification of organisms is called taxonomy
* Based on the system introduced by Carl Linnaeus (1735)
* Binomial system of...
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