1. (1 pt) Who was the first person to observe bacteria using a microscope? a. Lister b. van Leeuvenhoek c. Pastuer d. Koch
2. (2 pts) Which two of the following contribute to the opportunistic and infectious nature of bacteria?
a. flagella b. ability to persist in unfavorable environments c. selectively permeable membranes d. fast growth
e. ability to sense chemical gradients f. peptidoglycan
3. (1 pt) Capsules, sheaths, and slime layers generally aid with a. nutrient transport b. cell attachment
c. chemotaxis d. heat resistance
4. (1 pt) Penicillin controls bacterial growth by:
a. preventing synthesis of the lipopolysaccharide layer b. inhibiting protein synthesis c. preventing cross-link formation in peptidoglycan d. preventing generation of the proton motive force
5. (1 pt) The endosymbiont theory refers to the idea that:
a. human intestinal function depends upon populations of bacteria in the intestinal tract b. the plant chloroplast evolved from a symbiosis between a photosynthetic prokaryote and a eukaryotic organism
c. plasmids that encode for “non-essential” functions in bacteria can readily be transmitted between cells
d. termites depend upon a bacterial symbiosis to digest cellulose 6. (1 pt) Proponents of spontaneous generation believed that bacteria originated from: a. the air b. chemical breakdown of matter
c. pre-existing cells d. maggots
7. (1 pt) In response to experiments showing that spontaneous generation did not occur in broth that was sealed and sterilized, proponents of spontaneous generation argued that ________ was/were necessary for spontaneous generation to occur.
a. bacteria b. air c. cells d. disease
8. (1 pt) How did Louis Pasteur counter this argument and disprove spontaneous generation? a. He sealed and sterilized his experimental flasks
b. He cultured anaerobic organisms
c. He allowed free exchange of air in his sterilized flasks
d. He isolated bacteria from diseased organisms
1 9. (2 pts) Even after the discovery of bacteria, what two things hindered the realization that bacteria caused disease?
a. belief in spontaneous generation b. lack of sterile technique and solid media c. limitations of culturing techniques d. lack of understanding of contagion e. endospore formation f. lack of understanding of enrichment technique 10. (1 pt) When the plague devastated the population of Europe in the Middle Ages, why did people catch the disease even if they didn't come into contact with infected people or dead bodies?
a. The infectious organism washed out of bodies into the public water supply b. The infectious organism produced endospores that persisted in houses and public places c. The infectious organism persisted on nearly any surface in a state of non-growth activity and was readily picked up by unsuspecting people
d. The infectious organism was transmitted from bodies to rats, then to fleas, and from fleas to people
11. (8 pts) What are Koch's Postulates
i. Bacteria are present in a diseased animal but not in healthy animals ii. Bacteria can be isolated from the diseased animal and grown in pure culture iii. Inoculation of another healthy animal with cultured bacteria causes the same disease iv. The same bacteria can again be isolated from the inoculated, diseased, animal. 12. (1 pt) The use of sterile techniques and agar media enabled early microbiologists to: a. study pure cultures b. demonstrate the nature of infectious disease c. study mixed cultures d. study agar-metabolizing cultures e. disprove spontaneous generation
13. (1 pt) In a gram-negative organism, how do small molecules move into the periplasm from outside of the cell?
a. they diffuse freely through the peptidoglycan layer b. they pass through porins c. they are transported by lipid A d. via binary fission
14. (1 pt) Recently (the last 30 years), the use of evolutionary chronometers has...