By Jonathan Min
Tuberculosis is a widely known disease that is lethal in many cases which may occur in any parts of the body but mostly in the lungs. This disease begins with mild symptom but exacerbates to severe conditions ranging across the fever, chronic cough, weight loss, fatigue, and night sweats. While the 90 to 95 percent of infections may remain latent or dormant, it is deathly enough to kill more than a half of the patients once the infection becomes activated. This disease can be easily transported and spread by the air that the infected patients cough or sneeze. Its swift and easy transmission had leaded this disease to be one of the most prevalent diseases in the world, while the discovery of mycobacterium tuberculosis by a scientist named Robert Koch has brought a chance of decrease. Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) is an etiological agent or pathogenic bacteria that cause most of the tuberculosis. It is a small rod shaped bacillus which can survive in a dried or disinfected state for several weeks thanks to its thick lipid cell wall. Moreover, its thick lipid wall allows them to survive in the macrophages by impeding the fusion of lysosome with phagosome. This trouble-making characteristic of MTB made its identity obscured to be the diagnosed at the time when it was first discovered. This was because MTB was neither Gram negative or positive when it was Gram stained. Finally, the scientists employed different way of staining called acid-fast staining. Acid fast staining This technique allowed the scientists to diagnose the MTB. However, its treatment still remains somewhat problematic despite of its effective antibiotic treatment. This is because it requires a long and multiple antibiotics application in order to break its thick cell wall to eliminate. Its resistance to the antibiotic can rise as another problem that may aggravate the treatment. Vaccine is also an alternative utilizing bacillus...
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