Micro and Macro Marketing

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Competition in today’s business environment is increasingly becoming intense. Having competitive advantages alone is not sufficient. To survive in this global marketplace, the company has to define differentiation in a relevant and credible manner. Effective corporate branding is the main factor to gain and sustain competitive advantages and success of the company. A brand is a company's face to the world. Branding has been defined in the literature at length, with specific emphasis on the branding of products and services. A brand is described as the names and symbols associated with the known and trusted experiences that appeal to the heart and mind of the consumer. In these definitions branding is viewed as both an intangible (values) and tangible (names and symbols) aspect of products and services. Branding is viewed as an assertion of ownership of creation so that consumers are able to identify the work of the producer. Following the growth of global consumerism in more recent years, a modern brand is now viewed as a signpost for value, quality or equity and therefore the intangible brand elements must be acknowledged. Additionally, a brand is not a product, a logo or trademark, nor is it an advertisement or tagline. These are only the means to an end – the end being the establishment of a competitive brand. Branding consultants consider brands to be the currency of the 21st century, and firmly believe that they ought to be unique to be effective. A brand should offer a realistic and alluring promise. The ability to be consistent in the delivery of this promise is a definite plus in building long-term relationships, which in turn spawns reputation and goodwill. The brand promise is defined by the brand strategy and delivered through the brand personality. Clarity, distinction, and appeal exist in a linear relationship with the superiority of any given brand. First of all, brand can be described as productions, naming, packaging and merchandising. Coca-Cola...
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