Open-Book Quiz, Chapter 39
1. Three uses of diuretics include treatment of hypertension, mobilization of edematous fluid, and used to prevent renal failure.
2. Aldosterone is the principal mineralocorticoid of the adrenal cortex; it stimulates reabsorption of sodium from the distal cortex.
3. Most diuretics share the same basic mechanism of action: they block sodium and chloride reabsorption. The greatest diuresis is produced by those drugs whose site of action is early in the nephron.
4. Adverse effects caused by diuretics on the extracellular fluid include hypovolemia, acid-base imbalance, and disturbance of elytrolite levels.
5. The four major categories of diuretic drugs include loop diuretics, thiazide diuretics, osmotic diuretics, and potassium-sparing diuretics.
6. Situations that require rapid or massive mobilization of fluid are usually treated with furosemide.
7. The most widely used thiazide diuretic is hydorchlorothiazide, whose primary indication for use is hypertension.
8. The potassium-sparing diuretics have recently been found to have a positive impact on the treatment of severe heart failure.
9. Mannitol promotes diuresis by creating an osmotic force within the lumen of the nephron.
10. Patients who should use thiazide diuretics with caution include cardiovascular disease, renal impairment, diabetics mellitus, history of gout, those taking digoxin lithium, or antihypertensive drugs. Also, generally avoid use in women who are pregnant or breast-feeding.
Agents Affecting the Volume and Ion Content of Body Fluids
Open-Book Quiz, Chapter 40
1. Maintenance of fluid volume and osmolality is primarily the job of the kidneys.
2. Volume contraction is defined as a decrease in total body water; volume expansion is defined as increase in total body water.
3. Normal plasma sodium content is 135 to 145 mEq/L.
4. When a patient experiences a decrease in the total volume of... [continues]
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