Michael Faraday

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Michael Faraday
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For other uses, see Faraday (disambiguation).
Michael Faraday|
Portrait of Michael Faraday by Thomas Phillips (1841-1842)[1]| Born| 22 September 1791(1791-09-22)
Newington Butts, Surrey, England|
Died| 25 August 1867(1867-08-25) (aged 75)
Hampton Court, Surrey, England|
Residence| England|
Nationality| British|
Fields| Physics and chemistry|
Institutions| Royal Institution|
Known for| Faraday's law of induction
Electrochemistry
Faraday effect
Faraday cage
Faraday constant
Faraday cup
Faraday's laws of electrolysis
Faraday paradox
Faraday rotator
Faraday-efficiency effect
Faraday wave
Faraday wheel
Lines of force|
Influences| Humphry Davy
William Thomas Brande|
Notable awards| Royal Medal (1835 & 1846)
Copley Medal (1832 & 1838)
Rumford Medal (1846)|
Signature
|
Michael Faraday, FRS (22 September 1791 – 25 August 1867) was an English chemist and physicist (or natural philosopher, in the terminology of the time) who contributed to the fields of electromagnetism and electrochemistry. Faraday studied the magnetic field around a conductor carrying a DC electric current. While conducting these studies, Faraday established the basis for the electromagnetic field concept in physics, subsequently enlarged upon by James Maxwell. He similarly discovered electromagnetic induction, diamagnetism, and laws of electrolysis. He established that magnetism could affect rays of light and that there was an underlying relationship between the two phenomena.[2][3] His inventions of electromagnetic rotary devices formed the foundation of electric motor technology, and it was largely due to his efforts that electricity became viable for use in technology. As a chemist, Michael Faraday discovered benzene, investigated the clathrate hydrate of chlorine, invented an early form of the Bunsen burner and the system of oxidation numbers, and popularised terminology such as anode, cathode, electrode, and ion. Although Faraday received little formal education and knew little of higher mathematics, such as calculus, he was one of the most influential scientists in history. Historians[4] of science refer to him as the best experimentalist in the history of science.[5] The SI unit of capacitance, the farad, is named after him, as is the Faraday constant, the charge on a mole of electrons (about 96,485 coulombs). Faraday's law of induction states that magnetic flux changing in time creates a proportional electromotive force. Faraday was the first and foremost Fullerian Professor of Chemistry at the Royal Institution of Great Britain, a position to which he was appointed for life. Albert Einstein kept a photograph of Faraday on his study wall alongside pictures of Isaac Newton and James Clerk Maxwell.[6] Faraday was highly religious; he was a member of the Sandemanian Church, a Christian sect founded in 1730 that demanded total faith and commitment. Biographers have noted that "a strong sense of the unity of God and nature pervaded Faraday's life and work."[7] Contents[hide] * 1 Early years * 2 Scientific achievements * 2.1 Chemistry * 2.2 Electricity and magnetism * 2.3 Diamagnetism * 2.4 Faraday cage * 3 Royal Institution and public service * 4 Later life * 5 Commemorations * 6 Bibliography * 7 See also * 8 References * 9 Further reading * 9.1 Biographies * 10 External links * 10.1 Biographies * 10.2 Others| [edit] Early years

Faraday was born in Newington Butts,[8] now part of the London Borough of Southwark; but then a suburban part of Surrey, one mile south of London Bridge.[9] His family was not well off. His father, James, was a member of the Glassite sect of Christianity. James Faraday moved his wife and two children to London during the winter of 1790-1 from Outhgill in Westmorland, where he had been an apprentice to the village...
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