* Ireland ruled directly from London – Irish Politicians sit in the Parliament at Westminster (1800 Act of Union) * Lord Lieutenant – King’s representative in Ireland
* Chief Secretary – Parliament’s representative in Ireland * Nationalists & Unionists are the TWO main political groups in the country.
Political Groups in Ireland (1914)
The Nationalists – About 3 million Irish people – most of them Catholic – believed that Ireland should be independents of Britain. Two Types: 1. Moderate Nationalists – supported the Home Rule party (Irish parliamentary party) They wanted to achieve a self-governing Irish Parliament which would deal with internal Irish affairs ( education , transport etc). Westminster would continue to control foreign affairs and international trade. This partial independence would be achieved by PEACEFUL means only 2. Republicans – They believed that Home Rule did not go far enough. Ireland needed complete freedom from Britain in the form of a Republic. They believed that this could only be achieved by violent means. What is Home Rule Party
Home Rule means that Dublin would have its own Parliament.- (at the time Irish Politicians had to travel to Westminster) They wanted to achieve a self-governing Irish Parliament which would deal with internal Irish affairs ( education , transport etc). Westminster would continue to control foreign affairs and international trade. John Redmond was their LEADER
Irish Republican Brotherhood (IRB)
The IRB is a Secret Revolutionary Organisation – its members are also known as Fenians They want complete independence & are willing to use violence. The IRB provide the leaders for 1916
0 Sinn Féin was founded by Arthur Griffith in 1905
1 They wanted a dual-monarchy for UK & Ireland- They would achieve this by Parliamentary Abstention- wanted Irish MP’s to refuse to sit in Parliament in Westminster and instead set up their own Parliament in Dublin
The Unionists – About 1 million people were unionists. They were mainly concentrated in Ulster. They supported the Act of Union and wanted to stay I the UK.
Here are REASONS WHY…
* Economy. Industry in the North of the country (careful not to call it NI) was very successful – largely due to the excellent trade with Britain Unionists feared that if they left the United Kingdom – their business and Trade would be very badly affected. * Religion - Unionists feared that if Ireland had its own parliament, that Protestants would be out-voted and DISCRIMINATED against by the Catholic majority. Unionists warned that ‘Home Rule is Rome Rule’ * Identity . Many Unionists descended from Scottish and English settlers during the Plantations – they felt British rather than Irish and did not want to cut these cultural ties. *
The Home Rule Crisis 1912 -1914
1. Liberals (Prime Minister Asquith) agree to pass a Home Rule Bill 1912 2. Hse of Lords rejects Bill BUT can only delay for 2 years (the Parliament Act of 1911 meant they could no longer stop an Act being passed) 3. Home Rule is inevitable.
4. Unionists are HORRIFIED by prospect of Home Rule – they believe that if they oppose it strongly enough then Britain will drop it. 5. They organise opposition in the form of:
6. Street Demonstrations – crowds of 50,000 heard speeches from Carson and Craig 7. Ulster Solemn League & Covenant (this was when Ulster Unionists signed a document promising to defend their position within the British empire even with violence) (230,000 men/240,000 women) (oppose Home Rule) 8. The Formation of the Ulster Volunteer Force (UVF)- 1913 - trained Protestant men to resist Home Rule through force. About 100,000 volunteers – guns and ammunition were imported through Larne (Antrim) ( Larne Gun Running) 9. The Larne Gun-Running - On 24 April 1914 –...