Mgt 300 Study Guide - Exam 2

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Chapter 2: The classical approaches (scientific management, administrative principles, and bureaucratic organization) share a common assumption: people at work act in a rational manner that is primarily driven by economic concerns. Scientific Management: in 1911, Fredrick W. Taylor published The Principles of Scientific Management, in which he made the following statement: “The principle object of management should be to secure maximum prosperity for the employer, coupled with the maximum prosperity for the employee. He noticed that many workers did their jobs their own ways and without clear and uniform specifications. He believed this caused them to lose efficiency and underperform. He believed the problem would be fixed by scientific management: emphasizes careful selection and training of workers and supervisory support. Principles of Scientific Management: 1. Develop for every job a “science” that includes rules of motion, standardized work implements, and proper working conditions. (Gilbreths motion study- the science of reducing a task to its basic physical motions)2. Carefully select workers with the right abilities for the job. 3. Carefully train workers to do the job and give them the proper incentives to cooperate with the job “science.” 4. Support workers by carefully planning their work and by smoothing the way as they go about their jobs. An example of its present day influence can be seen at United Parcel Service where many workers are guided by carefully calibrated productivity standards. The point is that savings of seconds on individual stops adds up to significant increases in productivity. Administrative Principles: in 1916, Henri Fayol published Administrative Industrielle et Generale, a book that identifies 5 “duties” of mgmt, which closely resemble the 4 functions of mgmt we talk about today: planning, organizing, leading, and controlling. Administrative Principles: 1.foresight- to compete a plan of action for the future 2.Organization- to provide and mobilize resources to implement the plan 3.Command- to lead, select, and evaluate workers to get the best work toward the plan 4.Coordination- to fit diverse efforts together and to ensure information is shared and problems solved 5.Control- to make sure things happen according to plan and to take necessary corrective action. Fayol believed mgmt could be taught. His principles are still used today: scalar chain principle-there should be a clear and unbroken line of communication from the top to the bottom in the organization ; the unity of command principle- each person should receive orders from only one boss ; and the unity of direction principle- one person should be in charge of all activities that have the same performance objective Bureaucracy Organization: In the late 19th century a German intellectual Max Weber was concerned that people were in positions of authority not because of their job-related capabilities, but because of their social standing or “privileged” status in German society. Weber thought a specific form of organization was the solution: Bureaucracy- a rational and efficient form of organization founded on logic, order, and legitimate authority. Characteristics of a bureaucracy: 1.(2) Clear division of labor- jobs are well defined, and workers become highly skilled at performing them 2. (4) Clear hierarchy of authority- authority and responsibility are well defined for each position, and each position reports to a higher level 3. (5) Formal rules and procedures- written guidelines direct behavior and decisions in jobs, and written files are kept for historical record 4.(1) Impersonality- rules and procedures are impartially and uniformly applied, with no one receiving preferential treatment 5.(3) Careers based on merit- workers are selected and promoted on ability, competency, and performance, and managers are career employees of the organization. However, today we see disadvantages in this…excessive paperwork or “red tape,”...
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