Management as a Science and as an Art and as both. According to the nature of management, there is a controversy that whether management is a science or an art. This controversy is very old & is yet to be settled. It should be noted that, learning process of science is different from that of art. Learning of science includes principles while learning of art involves its continuous practice. Management as a Science
Science is a systematic body of knowledge relating to a specific field of study that contains general facts which explains a phenomenon. It establishes cause and effect relationship between two or more variables and underlines the principles governing their relationship. These principles are developed through scientific method of observation and verification through testing. Science is characterized by following main features:
1. Universally accepted principles – Scientific principles represents basic truth about a particular field of enquiry. These principles may be applied in all situations, at all time & at all places. E.g. – law of gravitation which can be applied in all countries irrespective of the time. Management also contains some fundamental principles which can be applied universally like the Principle of Unity of Command i.e. one man, one boss. This principle is applicable to all type of organization – business or non business. 2. Experimentation & Observation – Scientific principles are derived through scientific investigation & researching i.e. they are based on logic. E.g. the principle that earth goes round the sun has been scientifically proved. Management principles are also based on scientific enquiry & observation and not only on the opinion of Henri Fayol. They have been developed through experiments & practical experiences of large no. of managers. E.g. it is observed that fair remuneration to personal helps in creating a satisfied work force. 3. Cause & Effect Relationship – Principles of science lay down cause...
Please join StudyMode to read the full document