BSN 2-1 / GROUP #1
Leanna Mae S. Espineli
Reymund Cristopher Samonte ,RN, MAN ©
Clinical Instructor, Level I and II
January 25, 2013
A. BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
Williams’ Metro Manila Developmental Screening Test (MMDST)
Metro Manila Screening Test or MMDST is simple, clinically useful tool and an early detection model that applies to the detection of developmental disabilities in children. It is a modification and standardized by Dr. Phoebe D. Williams from the original Denver Developmental Screening Test or DDST by Dr. William K. Frankenburg. The MMDST is designed to detect development delays in children 2 weeks to 6 and half years of age. Just like DDST, MMDST is not an intelligence test. It is intended as a screening instrument to determine whether a child`s development is within normal range.. It evaluates four aspects:
1. Personal-Social- tasks which indicate the child`s ability to get along with people.
2. Fine Motor-Adaptive- task which indicate the child`s ability to pick objects using his/her hands.
3. Language- task`s indicate the child`s ability to speak and follow.
4. Gross Motor- tasks which indicate the ability of a child to sit, walk and jump. Four kinds of score may be given for each test item: passed, failed, refused or no opportunity. Generally, it is important because it is an early detection model that applies to the detection of developmental disabilities in children.
◦ Be able to determine and evaluate child’s development and developmental delays through the use of MMDST.
◦ To conduct the test which enhances child’s ability to participate and cooperate. ◦ To let the child do the test items that intersect in her age line and observe if she able to do the said tasks. ◦ To determine the growth and development of the child using MMDST. ◦ To help parents identify child’s developmental delays and aid them to resolve the delays. ◦ To enhance parents willingness in setting plans to resolve these delays. ◦ To give recommendations for the family and proposals for the community.
A. Havighurst’s Developmental Tasks and Age Periods
Havighurst identified Six Major Stages in human life covering birth to old age, namely infancy & early childhood (Birth - 6 years old), Middle childhood (6–13 years old), Adolescence (13–18 years old), Early Adulthood (19–30 years old), Middle Age (30-60years old), Later maturity (60 years old and over).
The client was in the stage of early childhood wherein his physical appearance and his physical abilities have matured from infancy until now. Client JACD is currently four years old and attending class in pre-school. His body was developed and no deformities happened. He can able to walk around and run fast, playing with his friends. He totally controls the elimination of body waste. He is also independent with regards to cleansing and maintaining his body clean. He is behaving in an acceptable manner to opposite sex. He knows the differences among being a girl and a boy. He is fund of playing ball as many of boys did. Mostly, his friends are composed of boys and opposing the group of girls. JACD is forming concepts and learning language to describe social and physical reality.
B. Freud’s Psychosexual Theory
Sigmund Freud (1856-1939) based his theory on his observations of mentally disturbed adults. He described child as being a series of psychosexual stages in which a child’s sexual gratification becomes focused on a particular body part.
The client is a preschooler and belongs to the category of Phallic Stage wherein child learns sexual identity through awareness of genital area. He already overcome and passes his infancy and toddler stage or regarding to his previous stages namely, oral stage and anal stage. In his oral stage, the client explores the world by...