Methods, Standards, and Work Design: Introduction

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METHODS, STANDARDS, AND WORK DESIGN: INTRODUCTION
Methods Engineering
* Entails analyses at two different times during the history of a product * The methods engineer is responsible for designing and developing the various work centers where the product will be produced * That engineer must continually restudy the work centers to find a better way to produce the product and improve its quality Methods Engineering Procedure

* Select the project
* Gather and present the data
* Analyze the data
* Develop the ideal method
* Present and install the method
* Develop a job analysis
* Establish time standards
* Follow up the method
Work Design
* As part of developing or maintaining the new method, the principles of work design must be used to fit the task and workstation ergonomically to the human operator. Standards
* Standards are the end result of time study or work measurement. * This technique establishes a time standard allowed to perform a given task, based on the measurements of work content of the prescribed method, with due consideration for fatigue and for personal and unavoidable delays. Techniques used by time analysts

* Stopwatch time study
* Computerized data collection,
* standard data,
* predetermined time systems,
* work sampling and
* estimates based on historical data
PROBLEM-SOLVING TOOLS
Exploratory tools
* Pareto analysis
* Fish diagrams
* Gantt chart
* PERT charting
* Job/worksite analysis guide
Pareto Analysis
* Named after Vilfredo Pareto -an Italian economist
* Items identified and ordered on common scale in decreasing frequency, creating a cumulative distribution Fish-bone Diagrams
* Cause-and-effect diagrams
* Identified problem or undesirable result is the “head” * Contributing factors are the “bones”
* Typical categories include: Human, machine, methods, materials, environment, and administrative * Estimates associated probabilities
Gantt Chart
* Used for planning of complex projects
* Shows expected start and completion times, also duration of events * Similarly, major events can be broken into smaller sub-tasks * Shade the bars to show actual completion time
PERT Chart
* Program Evaluation and Review Technique (PERT) is a planning and control tool * Also known as Network Diagram or Critical Path
* Developed in 1950’s
* CPM by DuPont for chemical plants (1957)
* PERT by Booz, Allen & Hamilton with the U.S. Navy, for Polaris missile (1958) * Consider precedence relationships and interdependencies Job/Worksite Analysis Guide
* Perform a walkthrough observing the area, worker, task, environment, administrative constraints, etc… * Develop an overall perspective of the situation
* Particularly useful in workstation redesign
Recording and Analysis Tools
* Operation Process Chart
* Flow Process Chart
* Flow Diagram
* Worker and Machine Process Charts
* Gang Process Charts
Operation Process Chart
* Chronological sequence of all operations, inspections, time allowances, materials * Depicts entrance and exit of all components and sub-assemblies and products * Provides information on the number of employees required time for jobs and inspections Flow Process Chart

* More detailed, fit for closer observation of smaller components or assemblies * Shows all moves (distances) and storage delays (times) for product movement in plant * Aids in the reduction of hidden costs, “Muda.”

* Can be beneficial for plant layout suggestions
Flow Diagram
* Pictorial representation of the layout of the plant
* Good supplement to the Flow Process Chart
* Indicates path travelled
Worker and Machine Process Charts
* Used to study, analyze, and improve one workstation
* Shows the time relationship between working cycle of the person and the operating cycle of the...
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