Methods of Lexicological Analysis

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CONTENTS

INTRODUCTION 3 І. Methods of Lexicological Analysis 5 І.1. Contrastive Analysis 5 І.2. Statistical Methods of Analysis 7 І.3. Immediate Constituents Analysis 9 І.4. Distributional Analysis and Co-occurrence 10 І.5. Transformational Analysis 13 І.6. Componential Analysis 14 І.7. Method of Semantic Differential 16 І.8. Contextual Analysis 18 CONCLUSION 19 LITERATURE 20 APPENDIX І

APPENDIX ІІ

INTRODUCTION

Growing interest in methods of study is one of the most symptomatic features of present-day linguistics. The research methods used in lexicology have always been closely connected with the general trends in linguistics. The principles of compar¬ative linguistics have played an important role in the development of a scientific approach to historical word study. They have brought an enor¬mous increase in ordered and classified information about the English vocabulary in their proper perspective. The methods applied consisted in observation of speech, mostly written, collection and classification of data, hypotheses, and systematic statements. Particular stress was put on the refinement of methods for collecting and classifying facts. The study of vocabulary became scientific. 19th century scientific language study having recognized variety and change in language, comparative philology insisted on regarding the descriptive statements as subordinate, not worth making for their own sake. Its aim was to reconstruct the fundamental forms and meanings which have not come down to us. With the use of sets of phonetic corre¬spondence philologists explored and proved genetic relationships between words in different languages. They rejected prescriptive trends characteristic of the previous stage. It was realized that the only basis for correctness is the usage of the native speakers of each language. They destroyed the myth of a Golden Age when all the words had their primary "correct" meaning and when the language was in a state of perfection from which it has deteriorated. It became clear from intensive work on the great historical dictionaries that multiple meaning for words is normal, not an "exception". Comparative studies showed that, save for specific technical terms, there are no two words in two languages that cover precisely the same area. The process of scientific investigation may be subdivided into several stages: •Observation

Classification
Generalization
Due to these processes the certain classification of the methods of lexicological analysis has appeared. Nowadays scientists distinguish:
Contrastive analysis
Statistical methods of analysis
Imme¬diate Constituents analysis
Distributional analysis and co-occurrence
Transformational analysis
Componential analysis
Method of semantic differential
Contextual analysis
The detailed description of these methods will be shown further.
I. METHODS OF LEXICOLOGICAL ANALYSIS

I.1. Contrastive Analysis

In fact contrastive analysis grew as the result of the practical demands of language teaching methodology where it was empirically shown that the errors which are made...
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