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Gillian Lazar

LITERATURE AND LANGUAGE TEACHING

A guide for teachers and trainers

{v}Contents

Thankspage viii
Acknowledgementsix
Introductionxii

1 Using literature in the language classroom:1
The issues

1.1What is literature?1
1.2What is distinctive about the language of literature?5 1.3The reader and the text8
1.4Literary competence and the language classroom11
1.5Why use literature in the language classroom?14

2 Approaches to using literature with the22
language learner

2.1An overview22
2.2A language-based approach to using literature27
2.3Stylistics in the classroom31
2.4Literature as content: How far to go?35
2.5Literature for personal enrichment: Involving students39 2.6The role of metalanguage43

3 Selecting and evaluating materials48

3.1Selecting texts48
3.2Evaluating learning materials which make use of literary texts56

4 Reading literature cross-culturally62

4.1Being a student62
4.2A consideration of cultural aspects in texts65
4.3Strategies for overcoming cultural problems67
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5 Materials design and lesson planning:71
Novels and short stories

5.lWriting your own story71
5.2Distinctive features of a short story72
5.3Anticipating student problems when using a short story75 5.4Planning a lesson for use with a short story77
5.5Further tasks and activities for use with a short story83 5.6Designing your own materials for use with a short story86 5.7Using novels in the language classroom89

6 Materials design and lesson planning: Poetry 94

6.1Putting a poem back together again94
6.2What is distinctive about poetry?96
6.3Why use poetry with the language learner?99
6.4Exploiting unusual language features101
6.5Helping students with figurative meanings104
6.6Using poetry with lower levels109
6.7Using poetry to develop oral skills116
6.8Using a poem with students at higher levels121
6.9Anticipating student problems127
6.10Further tasks and activities129

7 Materials design and lesson planning: Plays 133

7.1What is distinctive about plays?133
7.2The language of a play134
7.3The performance of a play135
7.4Why use plays in the language learning classroom?136 7.5Using play extracts to think about language in conversation138 7.6Using play extracts to improve students’ oral skills146 7.7Using play extracts with lower levels152

7.8Anticipating student problems155
7.9Further activities for play extracts159
7.10Using a whole play with students161

8 Reflecting on the literature lesson167

8.1 Thinking about observation 167
8.2 General observation of the literature lesson 170
8.3 Micro-tasks for reflecting on specific areas of teaching 170 8.4 Observing a student 176
8.5 Other ways of monitoring your teaching 178
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9 Literature and self-access 179

9.1What is a literature self-access centre?179
9.2Why have a literature self-access centre?179
9.3A simulation: First meeting for planning and setting up a literature self-access centre180 9.4Second meeting for setting up a literature self-access centre182 9.5Setting up a literature self-access centre: A case study182 9.6Worksheets to guide students in their reading185

Answer key189

Trainer’s notes 216

Bibliography255

Appendix: Eveline by James Joyce 259

Index 263

{viii}Thanks

I would like to thank the students and teachers from all over the world who participated in the lessons and seminars, especially at International House in London, on which this book is based. I have learned a great deal from...
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