Authors: Judy McKimm MBA, MA (Ed), BA (Hons), Cert Ed, FHEA Visiting Professor of Healthcare Education and Leadership, Bedfordshire & Hertfordshire Postgraduate Medical School, University of Bedfordshire Carol Jollie MBA, BA (Hons) Project Manager, Tanaka Business School, Imperial College London This paper was first written in 2003 as part of a project led by the London Deanery to provide a web-based learning resource to support the educational development of clinical teachers. It was revised by Judy McKimm in 2007 with the introduction of the Deanery’s new web-based learning package for clinical teachers. Each of the papers provides a summary and background reading on a core topic in clinical education. Aims The aims of this paper are to: • Provide ideas of how to make the most of clinical situations when teaching students or trainees • Raise awareness of the advantages and disadvantages of a range of teaching and learning methods in clinical teaching • Enable you to identify aspects of your everyday work which can be used as evidence for CPD Learning outcomes After studying this paper, you will be able to: • Identify opportunities for teaching and enabling learning in everyday clinical practice • Apply some of the major theories of learning and teaching from Higher Education and healthcare contexts to your own teaching practice • Utilise a wider range of teaching methods with students and trainees • Develop a reflective approach to teaching and learning which you can utilise in your own continuing professional development Contents • Acknowledgements • Introduction • The changing NHS: what does this mean for teachers and learners? • The learning environment – ‘learner centredness’ • The learning environment – the physical environment • Lifelong learning • The adult learner • Managing learning in a clinical and vocational context: o the education vs training debate o ‘learning by doing’ – becoming a professional o competency based learning o rehearsal, feedback and reflective practice
Teaching o o o o o o o o o o o
and learning methods: preparing for teaching facilitating the integration of knowledge, skills and attitudes teaching and learning in groups facilitating learning and setting ground rules explaining group dynamics managing the group lectures small group teaching methods and discussion techniques seminars and tutorials computer based teaching and learning – information technology and the World Wide Web o introducing problem based learning o case based learning and clinical scenarios References, further reading and useful links
Please note that the references, further reading and useful links for each of the sections are all in this section, grouped under subheadings Acknowledgements Thanks must go to colleagues who have contributed towards the development of this paper, in particular Clare Morris, Undergraduate Medicine Training Coordinator at Imperial College London and Dr Frank Harrison, Senior Lecturer in Medical Education, Imperial College London. Introduction This paper has been developed alongside Teaching and Learning in the clinical context: Theory and practice and Integrating teaching and learning into clinical practice. Between them, the three papers provide a comprehensive overview of teaching and learning in the clinical context. Theory and practice provides an overview of some educational theories, explains how these have impacted on teaching practice and offers ideas for putting theory into practice in the clinical context with a view to creating good situations for learning. Facilitating learning: Teaching and learning methods focuses on the ‘tools of the trade’: looking at some of the main teaching and learning methods that clinical teachers might use. Integrating teaching and learning into clinical practice has been written to follow and extend the theoretical learning in the other two papers. It considers the challenges of...