Methamphetamine and Stimulants

Only available on StudyMode
  • Download(s) : 343
  • Published : March 7, 2013
Open Document
Text Preview
General Psychology

STIMULANTS
Definition of Stimulant Drugs
Stimulant, any drug that excites any bodily function, but more specifically those that stimulate the brain and central nervous system. Stimulants induce alertness, elevated mood, wakefulness, increased speech and motor activity and decrease appetite. Their therapeutic use is limited, but their mood-elevating effects make some of them potent drugs of abuse. Stimulants are a class of psychoactive drug that increase activity in the brain. These drugs can temporarily elevate alertness, mood and awareness. While some stimulant drugs are legal and widely used, all can be addicting. While stimulants share many commonalities, each has unique properties and mechanisms of action. There are several drugs used as stimulants. Although in large part they share the same properties, their use is determined by how well they are absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract. These drugs are related to the body's normal stimulant hormones epinephrine and norepinephrine. •Injectable stimulants are used to stimulate the heart or breathing. Epinephrine (adrenalin) is the most common. •Topical stimulants are used as decongestants , since they cause blood vessels to contract. They are also used to stop superficial bleeding by contracting the capillaries and for relief of conjunctivitis . They may be applied to the skin, inhaled, or applied in the form of drops as nose drops or eye drops. •Oral stimulants, including the two drugs in this class ( methylphenidate [Ritalin] and amphetamine) are used to treat extreme daytime sleepiness also known as narcolepsy and for their calming effect in attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). •Caffeine, a stimulant found in foods and drinks, is used to promote wakefulness and alertness. The orally active stimulants were formerly used as an aid to dieting but were of little value for this purpose. They may still be used in the most extreme cases of obesity but are no longer routinely prescribed for this purpose. Some were widely used as decongestants for colds andallergies . They are subject to abuse, and amphetamines and methylphenidate are controlled substances in the United States. Pemoline (Cylert) is also a member of this class but is rarely used because of its potential for causing severe liver problems. This drug should be reserved for treatment of children whose ADHD cannot be controlled with either first or second line drug therapy and whose condition is so severe that the potential benefits justify the risk. Stimulant drugs, in addition to their proper medicinal use, are subject to abuse. The drugs commonly abused are methylphenidate, amphetamine, and methamphetamine. A related drug, 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (better known as ecstasy or MDMA), is also widely abused. Unlike methylphenidate and amphetamine, MDMA has no legitimate therapeutic use. Cocaine is chemically different from the traditional stimulants but provides similar effects. It is used medicinally as a local anesthetic but is not available for self-administration. Cocaine has become a major drug abuse problem.

Examples of Stimulant Drugs
COCAINE
(Coke, Charlie, Snow, Rock, The white, The nice, Uncle, Crack, Nuggets, Wash, Gravel) Cocaine is a stimulant drug as it directly affects the central nervous system. Cocaine was used in the past as a local anaesthetic in many countries. Cocaine is a white powder obtained from the leaves of the coca plant which grows in many areas of South America. It is a powerful stimulant, which has similar effects to amphetamines. Forms of Cocaine

White Powder (cocaine Hydrochloride) It can be inhaled or injected but cannot be smoked because it is destroyed at high temperature. Freebase Cocaine This is an extract of cocaine hydrochloride and it could be smoked. Crack is a very pure type of freebase cocaine and it is sold in the forms of small crystals or "rocks". Solubale Form Soluble cocaine is sometimes injected, possibly...
tracking img