As in any profession, nursing is built on essential concepts that are understood to be of vital importance. They include concepts of person, health, environment, and nursing practice. Collectively they are called the metaparadigmal concepts. These concepts are the basis for development of nursing theories and nursing conceptual models (Cresaia & Friberg, 2010). Growth, stability, and complexity are 3 viewpoints theorists of conceptual nursing models use to illustrates the correlation between the 4 components of the metaparadigms of nursing (Grand Canyon University, 2009-2011).
The American Nurses Association (2012) defines nursing as "the protection, promotion, and optimization of health and abilities, prevention of illness and injury, alleviation of suffering through the diagnosis and treatment of human response, and advocacy in the care of individuals, families, communities, and populations" (para. 25a).
This definition address's the metaparadigm theories of nursing by person/health, "provision of a caring relationship that facilitates health and healing"; health/environment, "attention to the range of human experiences and responses to health and illness within the physical and social environments"; and nursing practice, "application of scientific knowledge to the processes of diagnosis and treatment throughout the use of judgment and critical thinking" (para. 25b).
Cresaia, J., & Friberg, E. (2010). Conceptual foundations: The bridge to professional nursing practice (5th ed). [PDF format]. Retrieved July 2, 2012, from lecture notes online website http://angel105.gcu.edu/AngelUploads/Content/NRS430V
Grand Canyon University. (Producer). (2009-2011). Nursing Pyramid. Podcast retrieved July 2, 2012, from http://gcu.edu
American Nurses Association (2012). "Frequently Asked Questions". Retrieved July 2, 2012, from http://www.nursingworld.org/FunctionalMenuCategories/FAQs.aspx
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