Mesopotamian and Egyptian Civilizations

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Mesopotamian and Egyptian Civilizations

The ancient Near East captured much of the region between modern day England and Western Asia, including much of Northern Africa and Mesopotamia. From this domain, arose early civilizations that made significant contributions that paved the way to how we live our lives today. Two very distinct civilizations arose from the Neo-lithic period that initiated the basis for a great many people’s political structure, religion, society, and culture. Mesopotamian civilization occupied the land between the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers, while the Egyptian civilization formed a prosperous society along the Nile River. The Mesopotamians and Egyptians, unique in their own right, laid the foundations of a flourishing civilization in the region.

Mesopotamians, particularly the Sumerians, helped lead the transition from nomadic living to urban folk after the Neolithic Period. As more people began living a settled life, numerous towns sprang up, ushering a new way of life and the earliest forms of government. The towns, diverse and populous, developed a central authority governed by laws that brought about order and peace. In addition to forming one of the earliest forms of government, Mesopotamian’s invented writing that helped unify their society and the spread of their culture and ideas to a broader world by making communications easier. New advances in mathematics helped bring about the building of cities, palaces, temples, and canals.

Even before Christianity, the Mesopotamians had originated religious beliefs, believing that many gods brought order to the world and life itself. They acknowledge that though there were many deities, each had a specific task, such as overlooking music, victory, law, and sex. They, however, found that gods themselves were not equal to one another and offered sacrifices to the more powerful deities, often building their cities around shrines, which made it easier for them to worship the gods....
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