Mesopotamia & Egypt: Compare & Contrast

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Mesopotamia and Egypt Comparative Essay

The first civilizations to exist developed along river valleys. There were four major river valleys, each unique in their own way. Two of the more powerful ones were Mesopotamia and Egypt. Although these two had many similarities, Egypt had a more peaceful and smooth existence while Mesopotamia’s was more chaotic. Ancient Egypt suffered from fewer invasions and had little internal conflict due to its isolated location and centralized government. One reason Egypt had a relatively peaceful survival was because of its geography. The Nile River was used for trade, travel, irrigation, and fertile soil. The mountains and deserts hindered trade and travel and kept Egypt relatively isolated. Egypt had an immediate border of mountains and deserts along the Nile. Due to this, it was difficult to get into Egypt with troops which also made it difficult to invade. Surrounding Egypt was the Sahara Desert, China and India Mountains, the Red Sea, and the Mediterranean Sea. These geographic features forced everyone to be concentrated in the 10 miles of fertile land along the river. Whereas in Mesopotamia, they had 100 miles of fertile soil, then mountains and deserts which made it easy to invade. In Egypt, because of its 10 miles of fertile soil, the government was forced to be centralized. Since they’re government was centralized, they were united. In order for the pharaoh to control agriculture, the government could not afford to mess up or the empire would have no food. But in Mesopotamia, since there was a lot of fertile soil, civilizations were spread out into different city-states. This led to competition and conflict between city-states. Each competed for wealth and power. So even though both civilizations had similar geographic features, the layout of these features effected the development of their governments.

In addition, Egypt had a centralized government which made their civilization more peaceful than Mesopotamia’s....
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