Mesopotamia, Egypt and Hebrews
Mesopotamia and Egypt are known as the “place of the first civilization” followed by the Hebrews. These three societies traded extensively, but there was a difference in economic area. Mesopotamia was more productive of technological improvements, because their environment was more difficult to manage than the Nile valley. Trade contacts were more extensive, and the Mesopotamians gave attention to a merchant class and commercial law. Priests were part of the trades because they possessed surplus produce collected as rents from the farmers using temple land. Before merchants gained power as independent entrepreneurs; they used to serve the king and the temple priest.
The Egyptian economy collapse during the First Intermediate Period because of the civil wars and the collapse of central authority. The economy activity revived during the Middle Kingdom Period. Agriculture was one of the sources of wealth that Egyptians had. Food production was abundant thanks to overflow of the Nile. The floodwaters deposited a layer of fertile black earth. The Hebrews showed progress after Salomon’s kingdom engaged in trade with other states. When this connection was possible; the Hebrews started building new cities and buildings in Jerusalem. Since the Hebrews absorbed elements from Mesopotamia and Egypt; the sources of wealth were similar but with better technology. Hebrews improved their agricultural plantation by using the “iron-tipped plow”. Social differences were less obvious because it is difficult to obtain information on daily life for early civilizations. Unlike the Egyptians, Mesopotamians kings; did not see themselves as gods. They believed that the gods were working and doing their will through them. They were human representations of the gods in heaven. The status of women was greater in Egypt than in Mesopotamia. “The greatest source on the laws in Mesopotamia is the Hammurabi’s Code.”(Primary Source 1) The codes were...
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