20. June 2013
Mesopotamia, the birthplace of civilization, comes with an overwhelmingly rich history. Due to its wealth in contributions to many religions and ethnic groups and its strong religious influence in the area, the history behind Mesopotamia comes with a lot of stories. “No development has been more momentous, or fraught with consequence, than the emergence of civilization” (Perspectives 1). First were the urban development of Mesopotamia, the development of writing and the culture of Sumer. Mesopotamia was established in an area known as the Fertile Crescent. At this point in history, people settled wherever there was an exceeding amount of natural resources. The crescent was an ideal area. Mesopotamia was the name given to the land between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers. Mesopotamia means ‘between the rivers’ (Western Civilization 7).
The Ubaid cities Mesopotamia were founded by the Ubaid peoples. This dates around 5900 B.C.E (Western Civilization 8). Some of the Ubaid settlements bordered on fertile marshlands, which enabled them to develop irrigation systems. Although these began as relatively simple channels and collection pools, Ubaid farmers quickly learned to build more sophisticated canals and to line some pools with stone (Western Civilization). They also constructed dikes and leaves to control the seasonal flooding canals. Despite the hostility of the environment, Ubaid communities were soon producing surpluses sufficient to support specialists in constructs, weaving, pottery making, metalwork, and trade: the typical attributes of Neolithic village life. Totlani
Even though there is early evidence of something quite new to the central structures that served religious, economic and administrative functions, they started out as shrines. These structures soon became impressive temples built of dried mud brick, and plentiful stone used at Jericho. The...