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The Neolitic era is bristling with the foundations of human civilization. The first civilizations rose in the region of modern-day Iraq called Mesopotamia. The name Mesopotamia literally translates to “the land between the two rivers,” as it is flanked by the Euphrates and the Tigris Rivers. The location of these rivers made it an ideal spot for hunter-gatherer societies to settle down and focus more on agriculture. City-states emerged, notably in the form of Uruk, Ur, Kish, Nippur, and Lagash. These city-states joined together to form the first union of city-states known as Sumer. From Sumer, great strides in inventions and technological advances took place, including the invention of the wheel and the first writing system. It is also where religion began to have a more structured form, and the first creation stories to be noted. From literary articles such as the Epic of Gilgamesh, we manage to find out that the Mesopotamians didn’t believe in an afterlife, compared to other cultures that will rise in the future. Following the nation of Sumer came the First Babylonian Empire, where the first set of laws, named Hammurabi’s Code, were recorded. These laws gave us an insight to the culture in Babylon, where the women were more used as property or used as political leverage. The Iron Age followed shortly after, where the discovery of iron changed the way of life for everyone in the region. Iron, being more cheaper than the bronze used before, was used to build better weapons and tools to further the goals of city-states and nations in Mesopotamia. Some people, like the Assyrians, used this new technology to great advances and carved an intimidating empire that stretched from the Persian Gulf to the Nile valley. The Assyrians were noted to be the most militaristic empire of their time, creating a bloody reputation for themselves and cementing their position as an unchallenged power. The Persians came later to take their place as the supreme rulers of...
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