Politics in the name of merit and diversity has been there from the past and still prevails today. Politics is a tool to manipulate the environment .The one who knows to play it well has always dominated the society . From when it all began…… For tens of thousands of years, humans lived in small hunting and gathering societies. These bands of people show little signs of inequality. As societies became more complex, major changes came about; these changes elevated certain categories of the population by giving them more power, money, and prestige. Social Stratification- a system by which a society ranks categories of people in a hierarchy 1. Social stratification is a trait of society, not simply a reflection of individual differences. Children born into wealthy families are more likely than children born in poverty to experience good healthy, achieve academically, succeed in life s work and live a long life.
2. Social stratification persists over generations. To see stratification as a trait of society rather than one of individuals, we need to only look at how inequality persists along generations. In all societies, parents pass their social position on to their children. Social Mobility- change in one’s position in the social hierarchy. 3. Social stratification is universal but variable. In some societies, inequality is mostly a matter of prestige; in others, wealth or power is the key dimension of difference. More importantly some societies display more inequality than others. 4. Social stratification involves not just inequality but beliefs. Any system of inequality gives some people more than others and the society also defines the arrangements as fair
Caste and Class Systems A Caste System- is a social system based on ascription, or birth. A pure caste system is closed because birth alone determines one’s destiny, with little or no opportunity for social mobility based on effort. First, traditional caste groups have specific occupations, so generations of a family perform the same type of work. Second, maintaining a rigid social hierarchy depends on people marrying within their own categories; mixed marriages would blur the ranking of children.
Endogamy- marriage between people of the same social category. Third, caste norms guide people to stay in the company of cultural beliefs. Caste systems exist in agrarian societies because life long routines of agriculture depend on a rigid sense of duty and discipline. Class System- social stratification based on both birth and individual achievement. The class system categorizes people according to their color, sex, or social background comes to be seen as wrong in industrial and post-industrial societies, and all people gain political rights and roughly equal standing before the law. Meritocracy- social stratification based on personal merit. People in industrial societies develop a broad range of capabilities, stratification is based on merit, which is the job one does and their own kind. Fourth, caste systems rest on powerful
how well one does it. Why do industrial and post industrial societies keep caste like qualities? Because a pure meritocracy diminishes the importance of families and other social groupings. Economic performance is not everything after all. Would we want to evaluate our family members solely on their jobs? Probably not. Therefore, class systems in high-income nations move toward meritocracy to promote productivity and efficiency but retain caste elements to maintain order and social cohesion. Status consistency- the degree of consistency in a person social standing across various dimensions of social inequality. s
The Functions of Social Stratification The structural-functional paradigm- social inequality plays a vital part in the operation of society. Davis-Moore thesis- Social stratification has beneficial consequences of the operation of a society According to the Davis-Moore thesis, the greater...