1.1 INTRODUCTION TO MERGER AND ACQUISITION (M&A)
Mergers and acquisitions (abbreviated M&A) is an aspect of corporate strategy, corporate finance and management dealing with the buying, selling, dividing and combining of different companies and similar entities that can help an enterprise grow rapidly in its sector or location of origin, or a new field or new location, without creating a subsidiary, other child entity or using a joint venture. The distinction between a "merger" and an "acquisition" has become increasingly blurred in various respects (particularly in terms of the ultimate economic outcome), although it has not completely disappeared in all situations. An acquisition, also known as a takeover or a buyout, is the buying of one company (the ‘target’) by another. The acquisition process is very complex and various studies shows that only 50% acquisitions are successful. An acquisition may be friendly or hostile. In a friendly takeover a company’s cooperate in negotiations. In the hostile takeover, the takeover target is unwilling to be bought or the target's board has no prior knowledge of the offer. Acquisition usually refers to a purchase of a smaller firm by a larger one. Sometimes, however, a smaller firm will acquire management control of a larger or longer established company and keep its name for the combined entity. This is known as a reverse takeover. Although merger and amalgamation mean the same, there is a small difference between the two. In a merger one company acquires the other company and the other company ceases to exist. In an amalgamation, two or more companies come together and form a new business entity. The Companies Act, 1956 does not define the term 'Merger' or 'Amalgamation'. It deals with schemes of merger/ acquisition which are given in s.390-394 'A', 395,396 and 396 'A'.
1.2 TYPES OF M&A
There are many types of mergers and acquisitions that redefine the business world with new strategic alliances and improved corporate philosophies. From the business structure perspective, some of the most common and significant types of mergers and acquisitions are listed below: * Horizontal Merger
This kind of merger exists between two companies who compete in the same industry segment. The two companies combine their operations and gains strength in terms of improved performance, increased capital, and enhanced profits. This kind substantially reduces the number of competitors in the segment and gives a higher edge over competition. * Vertical Merger
Vertical merger is a kind in which two or more companies in the same industry but in different fields combine together in business. In this form, the companies in merger decide to combine all the operations and productions under one shelter. It is like encompassing all the requirements and products of a single industry segment. * Co-Generic Merger
Co-generic merger is a kind in which two or more companies in association are some way or the other related to the production processes, business markets, or basic required technologies. It includes the extension of the product line or acquiring components that are all the way required in the daily operations. This kind offers great opportunities to businesses as it opens a hue gateway to diversify around a common set of resources and strategic requirements. * Conglomerate Merger
Conglomerate merger is a kind of venture in which two or more companies belonging to different industrial sectors combine their operations. All the merged companies are no way related to their kind of business and product line rather their operations overlap that of each other. This is just a unification of businesses from different verticals under one flagship enterprise or firm. * Friendly Takeover: -
Also commonly referred to as ‘negotiated takeover’, a friendly takeover involves an acquisition of the target company through negotiations between the existing...