Mental Images Concepts and Schemas

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Concepts

What it is
• Putting things into categories known as concept formation • Group of objects that have similar properties which you can further subconcept to organize them further,

Example
• Food can be put into categories of meat, fish, dairy, and vegetables you can then subconcept into meat into beef, pork, and lamb and so on for fish, dairy, and vegetables

Evidence/ experiments
• Research carried out by George Mandler (1967 cited in spoors et al 2011) supports that by organizing information we learn it even if we don’t mean to. He carried out an experiment giving two groups of participants a pack of 100 cards with words on. They were asked to put the cards into group. He asked one group to memorize cards, later testing both groups by asking them to write down the words they could remember, the group that were not asked to memorize the words remembered just as many words as the group that did memorize them.

Schemas
What it is
• A mental framework of knowledge developed as a result of experience, objects, situations, groups of people and yourself.

Example
• Memory is like a huge mental filing cabinet and each file is a schema. They help us to deal with new situations more efficiently by applying past similar experiences we have encountered. They help to recall information that is stored and provide cues to prompt our memory.

Evidence/experiments
• Swiss psychologist Jean Piaget spent over 50 years investigating the ways children develop their thinking. He thought they did this by developing schemas which are built up from their experience of the world. John Bransford and Maria Johnson (1972 cited in spoors et al 2011) carried out an experiment by giving a group of participants a passage of writing to read and then asked them to recall it as best they could. However half of them were given a title and the other half were not. The passage of writing was about washing...
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