Mental health promotion in pregnancy women
Mental health promotion is an important step to improving quality of life, it aims to enhance positive mental health and to reduce the burden of mental health problems and disorders (Ip, 2002). Pregnancy can be a difficult period presenting physiological and psychological challenges for women (Van den Bergh et al., 2005). Many pregnant women may experience a variety of emotions such as fear regarding their ability to cope with the pregnancy, an inability to adapt to the pregnancy and anxiety over their baby’s physical health and pending lifestyle changes (Hayes et al., 2001, Cantwell & Cox, 2003). When psychological problems arise during pregnancy, the safety of pharmacological treatment in terms of the risks to the fetus and the mother must be considered. In light of these risk assessments, non-pharmacological preventive intervention for antenatal stress, anxiety and depression should be considered of significant importance (Cunningham & Zayas, 2002; Field et al., 2003; Lee et al., 2004; Van den bergh et al., 2005). Music has been used for healing for hundreds of years. In the early nursing history, Florence Nightingale used music as a nursing intervention (Olson, 1998; Biley, 2000). Music maintains harmony between the body and soul and is an effective therapeutic modality within holistic or integrative medicine (Olson, 1998). As an effective and non-pharmacological therapeutic modality, music can assist nurses in creating a healing environment that promotes physical, emotional and spiritual well-being (MCloskey & Bulechek 1996). Moreover, music is easily used in most environments and it can be tailored to personal preferences to enhance relaxation (Ip, 2002). This issue aim as discuss the definition of health and mental health, the common mental illness which pregnancy women will be encountered, the importance of mental health promotion in pregnancy and the musical therapy intervention. A health promotion session for pregnancy women will also be proposed.
Definition of Health and Mental Health
Health is described as “a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity” (WHO 1948). This definition stresses health as a positive state of well-being. People in a state of emotional, physical, and social well-being fulfill life responsibilities, function effectively in daily life, and are satisfied with their interpersonal relationships and themselves (Videbeck, 2009). No single universal definition of mental health exists. Generally, a person’s behavior can provide clues to his or her mental health. Because each person can have a different view or interpretation of behavior, the determination of mental health may be difficult. Mental health has many components, and a wide variety of factors influence it. These factors interact; thus, a person’s mental health is a dynamic or ever-changing state. Factors influencing a person’s mental health can be categorized as individual, interpersonal, and social or cultural (Videbeck, 2009). The American Psychiatric Association (APA, 2000) defines a mental disorder as “a clinically significant behavioral or psychological syndrome or pattern that occurs in an individual and is associated with present distress or disability or with a significantly increased risk of suffering death, pain, disability, or an important loss of freedom (Videbeck, 2009).
Mental status during the pregnant period
Globally, women’s health is seen as a particular issue of need (WHO, 2000). In the context of women’s health, it includes women’s lives such as spiritual, emotional, physical, political, economic and social dimensions (McDonald & Thompson, 2005). However, it is suggested that a major depressive disorder is experienced by around 7-13% of women worldwide (Bennett et al, 2004). Moreover, pregnancy is an episode of great adjustment which includes emotion, social, family, financial and...
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