Memory

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Outline of Memory
MEMORY The ability to retain information over time
–Active system that receives, stores, organizes, alters, and recovers (retrieves) MEMORY The ability to retain information over time
–Active system that receives, stores, organizes, alters, and recovers (retrieves)

THREE STAGES/TYPES OF MEMORY
•SENSORY
•SHORT TERM (WORKING)
•LONG TERM

THREE PROCESSES
•ENCODING
•STORING
•RETRIEVING

Stages of Memory
•SENSORY (IN RAW FORM)
–The first stage of memory
–Stores an exact copy of incoming information
•ICONIC memories
–Fleeting visual or mental images
–Lasts about ½ second
•ECHONIC memories
–Brief continuation of the sound in the auditory system
–Lasts about 2 seconds

Sensory
•What’s the purpose?
•Prevents overload
•Decision type to determine value
•Stability playback and recognition
•If attention is paid goes to Short Term

Stages of Memory
•Short-Term Memory (STM)
–(also known as Working Memory)
–Limited duration 2 to 30 seconds
Unless use Techniques:
What do you do?

Short-Term Memory
•Rehearsal
–Maintenance Rehearsal
•Repeating information silently to prolong its presence in STM •a.k.a. rote learning; not effective for long-term learning –Elaborative Rehearsal
•Links new information with existing memories and knowledge in LTM •Good way to transfer STM information into LTM
•Chunking
–Process of grouping bits of information into larger units –Based on meaningfulness of the bits
–Short-Term Memory capacity is then 7 ±2 chunks
–(demonstration 1)

Stages of Memory
•Long-Term Memory (LTM)
–Storing information relatively permanently
–Stored on basis of meaning and importance
–Considered limitless
–The more you know, the easier it is to add new information –Demo.(2)

Long-Term Memory
•Permanence
–Some studies suggest memories are permanent
•Wilder Penfield stimulated brain areas with an electrode during brain surgery •Patients reported vivid memories of long-forgotten events when stimulated •Permanence
–Some studies suggest memories are only relatively permanent •Many events never get from sensory memory to STM
•Brain stimulation only produces memories in 3% of cases.

LTM: Constructing Memories
•As new LTM memories are formed, old memories are updated, changed, lost, or revised. –Constructive Processing
•Process of reorganizing or updating long-term memories
•Gaps “filled in” using logic, reasoning, or adding new information •Demo 3.

•PRIMACY –Refers to better recall –easier first 4 or 5 items •RECENCY –Last 4 or 5 items easier to recall
•To much overload
•(The Story –demo.#4)

PROCESS of Memory
•Memory systems act like a computer
–ENCODING
•Converting information into a useable form
•Typing data into a computer
–STORING
•Holding this information in memory for later use
–RETRIEVAL: Taking memories out of storage
–Demo. 5

STORY OR PARAGRAPH
•Share story or picture with as many details as you can remember: •Place –What was happening
•How old, Time of Year
•Clothes
•Emotions.
•Do this 3 times with different people

LTM: Constructing Memories
•Pseudo-Memory
–False memories that a person believes are true or accurate –Due to not being able to remember the source of the memory –“Memory jamming”
•Advertisers “jam” memory with positive impressions of a product •Repeated exposure leads
•to false memories in LTM
•Read articles.

Recovered Memory/False Memory Debate
•Some sexually abused children may repress memory of abuse •Uncovering hidden memories is key to regaining mental health

Critical Thinking:Telling Right From Wrong in Forensic Memory •Can hypnosis improve a witness’ memory?
–No
–Hypnosis increases false memories more than real ones
–80% of memories generated are incorrect
•Imagination is used to fill in “gaps”
•Hypnotized individuals are highly confident in false memories •Cognitive Interview recreates crime scene
–Produces 35% more correct information than standard questioning

FALSE MEMORIES...
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