Dr Muhammad Mushtaq Mangat www.mushtaqmangat.org
An important and growing part of the textile
industry is the medical and related healthcare and hygiene sector.
The extent of the growth is due to constant
improvements and innovations in both textile technology and medical procedures .
Medical Textiles Applications
Starting from a single thread suture to the
complex composite structures for bone replacement
And from the simple cleaning wipe to
advanced barrier fabrics used in operating rooms. 
Nonimplantable materials – wound dressings,
bandages, plasters, etc. liver, and lung
Extracorporeal devices – artificial kidney,
Implantable materials – sutures, vascular
grafts, artificial ligaments, artificial joints, etc. clothing, surgical gowns, cloths, wipes, etc. 
Healthcare/hygiene products – bedding,
Fiber used in MT
Regenerated cellulosic fibers
Synthetic fibers; polyester, polyamide,
polytetrafluoroethylene, (PTFE), polypropylene, carbon, glass, and many more
MT and degradation
Fibers used for inside of the body should be
biodegradable within 2–3 months after implantation.
Cotton, viscose rayon, polyamide,
polyurethane, collagen, and alginate.
Some fibers takes more than 6 months to
polyester, polypropylene, PTFE and carbon.
Natural polymers such as collagen, alginate, chitin, chitosan, are used for modern wound dressings Collagen, is obtained from bovine skin and used as sutures, are as strong as silk and are biodegradable. The transparent hydrogel that is formed when collagen is cross-linked in 5–10% aqueous solution, has a high oxygen permeability and can be processed into soft contact lenses. Calcium alginate fibers are produced from seaweed of the type Laminariae possess healing properties, effective in the treatment of a wide variety of wounds, and dressings 
A polysaccharide that is obtained from crab and shrimp shells, has excellent antithrombogenic characteristics, and can be absorbed by the body and promote healing. Chitin nonwoven fabrics used as artificial skin adhere to the body stimulating new skin formation which accelerates the healing rate and reduces pain. Treatment of chitin with alkali yields chitosan that can be spun into filaments of similar strength to viscose rayon. Chitosan is now being developed for slow drug-release membranes. 
Used for external applications on the body
and may or may not make contact with skin
The functions of these materials are to provide protection against infection, absorb blood and exudate, promote healing and, in some instances, apply medication to the wound. Common wound dressings are composite materials consisting of an absorbent layer held between a wound contact layer and a flexible base material.
Bandages are designed to perform a whole variety of specific functions depending upon the final medical requirement. They can be woven, knitted, or nonwoven and are either elastic or non-elastic. The most common application for bandages is to hold dressings in place over wounds. Such bandages include lightweight knitted or simple open weave fabrics made from cotton or viscose that are cut into strips then scoured, bleached, and sterilized.
Extracorporeal devices are mechanical organs
that are used for blood purification and include the artificial kidney (dialyser), the artificial liver, and the mechanical lung. benefit from fiber and textile technology.
The function and performance of these devices
The function of the artificial kidney is achieved