obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) – the client has intrusive thoughts of unrealistic obsessions and tries to control these thoughts with compulsive behaviors. · Clients who engage in constant ritualistic behaviors may have difficulty meeting self-care needs (i.e. personal hygiene, grooming, nutrition, fluid intake, elimination and sleep) · If rituals include constant handwashing or cleaning, skin damage and infection may occur. · Obsession - Recurrent thoughts that the client cannot control; often violent, fearful, or doubting on nature (fear of contamination). · Compulsion - Repeated performance of rituals or purposeless behaviors designated to prevent some event, divert unacceptable thought, and decrease anxiety. Client may not desire to perform behavior but is unable to stop, as this is the only relief from stress. General anxiety disorder – more than 6 months of uncontrollable, excessive worry. ü Causes significant impairment in one or more areas of functioning such as work-related duties. ü Symptoms: fatigue, restlessness, problems with concentration, irritability, increased muscle tension, sleep disturbances.
2. Effects of diazepam (Valium) – Increased tolerance which may lead to physical and physiological dependence or addiction.
3. Rationale why chlorpromazine (Thorazine) is given along with lithium carbonate – Lithium is used to stabilize mania (for bipolar disorder). It has a narrow therapeutic range, so serum therapeutic levels must be determined 8-12 hours after the first dose, then two or three times per week for the first month and then weekly to monthly. Because it may take 2-3 weeks for lithium carbonate to be effective, Thorazine and Haldol are given to decrease the initial level of hyperactivity.
4. Basic drive behind the pt’s ANOREXIA NERVOSA a. Basic drive: perfection, fear to get fat and sense of control. b. Others: peer pressure, depression
5. Classic behavior of BULIMIA –
ü Binge eating
ü Tooth marks on knuckles to induce vomiting
ü Dental carries due to gastric acid
ü Electrolyte Imbalances
6. Defense mechanism:
a. Repression – unconsciously blocking an unwanted thought or memory from open expression. (i.e. a student truly does not remember cheating on an important exam) b. Denial – a person ignores reality and absolutely refuses to be swayed by evidence. (i.e. an alcoholic states, “I do not have a problem with alcohol. I never drink before 5pm) c. Rationalization – a person unconsciously makes EXCUSES for behavior or feelings (i.e. a woman who just lost her job, because she frequently was LATE for work tells friends that it will be much better for her family if she stays home every day. d. Identification – modeling behavior after someone else.(i.e. a student starts dressing and talking like a popular schoolmate)
7. withdrawal signs 12 hours after alcohol intoxication: IRRITABILITY is the first sign
8. How is Korsakoff’s syndrome confirmed (what diagnostic exam?) – Korsakoff’s syndrome is a substance-induced persisting dementia, which is irreversible. If symptoms of confusion, ataxia and memory loss, WERNICKE’s encephalopathy is suspected. Grossly impaired MEMORY and GAIT disturbance. Confabulation or making up stories is seen as an attempt to communicate. BRAIN SCAN or MRI will show brain atrophy.
9. Cannabis (marijuana) effect – euphoria and expands senses.
10. Interventions for patient with HALLUCINOGENIC substance abuse - provide safety protect patients from injury.
11. pathophysiology of memory lapses seen in early stages of...