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Effect of Music by Mozart on Energy Expenditure in Growing Preterm Infants Ronit Lubetzky, Francis B. Mimouni, Shaul Dollberg, Ram Reifen, Gina Ashbel and Dror Mandel Pediatrics 2010;125;e24-e28; originally published online Dec 7, 2009; DOI: 10.1542/peds.2009-0990

The online version of this article, along with updated information and services, is located on the World Wide Web at: http://www.pediatrics.org/cgi/content/full/125/1/e24

PEDIATRICS is the official journal of the American Academy of Pediatrics. A monthly publication, it has been published continuously since 1948. PEDIATRICS is owned, published, and trademarked by the American Academy of Pediatrics, 141 Northwest Point Boulevard, Elk Grove Village, Illinois, 60007. Copyright © 2010 by the American Academy of Pediatrics. All rights reserved. Print ISSN: 0031-4005. Online ISSN: 1098-4275.

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Effect of Music by Mozart on Energy Expenditure in Growing Preterm Infants WHAT’S KNOWN ON THIS SUBJECT: Music has been shown to reduce stress, decrease heart rate and salivary cortisol, and increase oxygen saturation, nonnutritive sucking rate, and even weight gain in preterm infants. WHAT THIS STUDY ADDS: Exposure to Mozart music significantly lowers REE in healthy preterm infants. AUTHORS: Ronit Lubetzky, MD,a,b,c Francis B. Mimouni, MD,c,d Shaul Dollberg, MD,a,c Ram Reifen, MD,e Gina Ashbel, RN,a and Dror Mandel, MDa,c Departments of aNeonatology and bPediatrics, Tel Aviv Sourasky Medical Center, Tel Aviv, Israel; cSackler School of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv, Israel; dPediatrics, Shaare Zedek Medical Center, Jerusalem, Israel; and eFaculty of Agriculture, Food and Environment, Hebrew University, Jerusalem, Israel KEY WORDS metabolic rate, music, preterm infants, energy expenditure

abstract
OBJECTIVE: The rate of weight gain in preterm infants who are exposed to music seems to improve. A potential mechanism could be increased metabolic efficiency; therefore, we conducted this study to test the hypothesis that music by Mozart reduces resting energy expenditure (REE) in growing healthy preterm infants. DESIGN. A prospective, randomized clinical trial with crossover was conducted in 20 healthy, appropriate-weight-for-gestational-age, gavage-fed preterm infants. Infants were randomly assigned to be exposed to a 30-minute period of Mozart music or no music on 2 consecutive days. Metabolic measurements were performed by indirect calorimetry. RESULTS: REE was similar during the first 10-minute period of both randomization groups. During the next 10-minute period, infants who were exposed to music had a significantly lower REE than when not exposed to music (P .028). This was also true during the third 10minute period (P .03). Thus, on average, the effect size of music on REE is a reduction of 10% to 13% from baseline, an effect obtained within 10 to 30 minutes. CONCLUSIONS: Exposure to Mozart music significantly lowers REE in healthy preterm infants. We speculate that this effect of music on REE might explain, in part, the improved weight gain that results from this “Mozart effect.” Pediatrics 2010;125:e24–e28

ABBREVIATION REE—resting energy expenditure This trial has been registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov (identifier NCT00838474). www.pediatrics.org/cgi/doi/10.1542/peds.2009-0990 doi:10.1542/peds.2009-0990 Accepted for publication Jun 18, 2009 Address correspondence to Dror Mandel, MD, Lis Maternity Hospital, Tel Aviv Sourasky Medical Center, Department of Neonatology, 6 Weizman St, Tel Aviv 64239, Israel. E-mail: dmandel@post.tau.ac.il PEDIATRICS (ISSN Numbers: Print, 0031-4005; Online, 1098-4275). Copyright © 2009 by the American Academy of Pediatrics FINANCIAL DISCLOSURE: The authors have indicated they have no financial relationships relevant to this article to disclose.

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