Medical Biotechnology

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Research Paper
Medical Biotechnology

History and Philosophy of Science

Table of Content
Part I
Introduction…………………………………………………………………………………..3 Part II Medical Biotechnologies
Drug Production……………………………………………………………………………...5
Pharmacogenomics…………………………………………………………………………...6
Gene therapy…………………………………………………………………………………7
References……………………………………………………………………………………8

Part I Introduction.

The topic of my research paper is the Medical Biotechnology, because of its great history and one trait which have the power of healing. Medical Biotechnology is the oldest field of science which even till today is not researched fully. From the ancient times people have been practicing medicine in all its fields, so today medicine have grown to industries serving billions people around the world.

Since the great industrial revolution, the population has doubled, and with the developing of humans, different kinds of diseases have emerged. But diseases were not the only problem, with a new era and the number of people which have been increasing, food became among of the serious problems. People started look for different ways in order to feed people, but because of the awful sanitation they also have been looking for lands and medicine.

So, here I would like to start with my topic “Medical Biotechnology”, these two words have all answers for the problems which people have even today.
First of all, let me tell what the biotechnology is, it is the science and technology which use living things and cells for common good. This science was originated thanks to breeding of crop plants, domestic animals, and the fermentation of the food stuff for making bread, cheese, beer and wine. But in the late of 20th and 21st century, biotechnology has expanded to include new and diverse science such as genomics, recombinant, gene technologies, applied immunology and development of pharmaceutical therapies and diagnostic tests.

Because of the biotechnology the life of people much easier than it could be, biotechnology was used by humans when they irrigated lands and in order to increase harvest, they unconsciously applied this technology. As it was told, the science of biotechnology was used in agriculture, in the way irrigating lands and interbreeding crops, what in its turn gave rich yields. The process of cultivation might be the oldest type of biotechnology used in producing food since the Neolithic Revolution. Through early biotechnology, the earliest farmers selected and bred the best suited crops, having the highest yields, to produce enough food to support a growing population. As crops and fields became increasingly large and difficult to maintain, it was discovered that specific organisms and their by-products could effectively fertilize, restore nitrogen, and control pests.

Throughout the history of agriculture, farmers have inadvertently altered the genetics of their crops through introducing them to new environments and breeding them with other plants, this is one of the first forms of biotechnology.

Brewing was an early application of biotechnology
Biotechnology has also led to the development of antibiotics, such as Penicillium. In 1928, Alexander Fleming discovered the mold Penicillium which is a genus of ascomycetous fungi, it is also very important in the natural environment as well as food and drug production. It is made of genus, which produces penicillin, this molecule is used as an antibiotic, which kills or prevents the developing of certain kinds of bacteria in the body. According to the Dictionary of the Fungi (10th edition 2008), the widespread genus contains over 300 species. This discover was one of the most important in the world of medicine and in in 1940 penicillin became available for medicinal use to treat bacterial infections in humans.

But in spite of the huge progress in the medicine and healing people, biotechnology was not always used for good intention. Thus...
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