Although the institutional history of Nepali media could be traced back to 1851 when Rana Prime Minister Jung Bahadur Rana installed a printing press (the Giddhe Press), or in 1901 when the state-owned newspaper, the Gorkhapatra, was launched, its practical history begins in the 1950’s, after the fall of Ranas, when several pioneering journalists took to publishing newspapers in a transitional democracy. After the Restoration of democracy in 1990 a drastic change came in the Nepali Media particularly in the private sector. Liberal provision and guarantee of press freedom enshrined in the constitution opened up avenues for the private sector to involve on media sector. The 1990's democracy yielded by the People's Movement also established rights and freedom of the press. The Constitution of the Kingdom of Nepal (1990) formally guaranteed the freedom of press and publication. History of media goes parallel with the political history of any country. We can also witness similar situation in Nepalese context. The history of Nepali media has been immensely influenced by the Nepalese political history. The political history of Nepali journalism can be divided into seven phases:
· Traditional communication system
· Rana period
· Period after the establishment of democracy
· Panchayat period
· Period after the restoration of democracy
· Period during king’s regime
· Period following the success of People's Movement-2063 BS onwards The promulgation of Right to Information Act-2064, Working Journalist Act-2064 (Second Amendment) and constitutional guarantee of freedom of press and expression in the Interim Constitution-2064 have been the remarkable achievements yielded in Nepali press. Nepali media witnessed setback as it was manipulated and numerous incidents of attack and atrocity in the series of political confrontation and clash erupted. In short, there is still need for Nepali Media to wage struggle for their professional and physical safety as well as to establish freedom of press and of expression in Nepal.
TYPES OF PRODUCTS AND SERVICES
Media industry consist of 3 types first being oldest and most popular print media second being broadcasting medias popularly known as TV and radio and last one is emerging and significantly growing sector that is internet media. Print media is the most popular and oldest among the available medias in media industry in Nepal. The history of Nepali print media could be traced back in 1851 when Rana Prime Minister Jung Bahadur Rana installed a printing press (the Giddhe Press) but actually it is assumed that print media started from 1901 when Gorkhapatra sansthan was established. Back then there are numbers of newspapers that are operating in Nepal both in nationwide and regional level. In broadcasting media Radio is the first media introduced which was cheap, affordable so that mostly popular in Nepalese market. Government of Nepal took the first initiation on establishment of radio station named “Nepal Radio” now popularly known as “Radio Nepal” in 19……. It is the first and only government owned radio station in Nepal. Besides this there are ……number of radio stations in Nepal and the first private radio station of Nepal is …..hits fm…. Though there are modern media like TV internet etc are aviliable but radio is still the most popular media in most of the rural areas of the Nepal. In broadcasting media television is the most popular one. Television br0adcasting media was firstly initiated by the establishment of the Nepal television in 1995 which was completely owned by Nepal government. Growing popularity of the television industry attract private sector to invest in tv media as a result kantipur channel and image channel both came in operation in 2003 as a rival firm in tv broadcasting market in Nepal. In record till date there are 24 tv stations currently broadcasting in Nepal among whome 16 are nationwide and 8 stations operates in regional...