Media Gratification Research by by Karl Erik Rosengren, Lawrence A. Wenner & Philip Palmgreen

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Review of ‘Media Gratification Research’
From 1974-1985, there were some rapid changes in the field of media gratification research but the base were neither new nor revolutionary. It had made some abrupt change with the help of technologies. When the uses of mass communication in 1974 suggested that “Ask not what media do to the people but also what people do with the media”. Than, the role of people in the society as one of the significant stakeholder of the society. In term of “Shift of Paradigm”, many writers said- this is the point of departure in media research and it was based on the mixture of media uses and the intervention of media effects. But there is some other opposition with their own grammar of media “Shift of Paradigm”.

Now a days, media gratification research develop all over the world as one of the unavoidable discipline. When it were in the starting gate with slow speed, there were two factors; first effect of World War II with difference experience of individual gratification. Secondly, the use of variable of social and psychological aspects the, in term of media consumption. The second part has four influential elements like; a) Surveillance, b) Correlation, c) Socialization and d) Entertainment.

In the third phase of development of gratification research, it became nature. Author expressed that, the use of gratification approach concerned with social and psychological needs by the prospect of media and other sources which involved people in to the media exposure to gratify people. And the concept of gratification sought is the usage of active audience can be understood by the media goals which competes with other source of entertainment by the audience need and make the people gratified with various aspects.

As these assumption are important part of research over decades but these statements have some debate like the make of the theory in use and gratification studies and the relation of functionalism with media usage. Functionalism addresses the social aspects in term of functional elements like, norm, custom, and institution in fourth phase get the idea from first theory and findings and bringing these issues in to the today’s position and make a model of gratification framework called ‘Palmgreen model’ which has eleven significant part that interact with each other.

The whole research found some approach like 1) social and psychological origin of media gratification 2) Expectancy-value approach, 3) Audience activities, 4) Gratification sought and obtained, 5) Gratification and media consumption, 6) Gratification and media effects. Huge explanation and statement were made for these models and made these researches as equilibrium for both audience and the media.

The recent trend is to use the ‘use and gratification research’ with media consumption process. These models on theories should have some relations theories for exploring the descriptive nature of media and it must go in-depth of the media consumption through process. There are some challenges for the MGR (Media gratification research) like new technologies and conceptual framework of media research. And also societal change linked with mass media. So, need multivariate assessment model for MGR various grouping specially the relation as linear structural equation and some technological changes to understand model of gratification, media consumption and media effect.

Though, there are less gratification theories to identify the social and cultural context of media, many of the theories are individualistic and pretty personal. But the media are integrated to the society because it influences not only in individual level but also in social and mass level. There are some factors also associated with media satisfaction like different social position, age, sex and different media satisfaction level like, diversion, surveillance and personal identity. Example like, retire person has less affiliation with organization and have...
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