NAME: EFETURI EMAKPORE
MODULE: MEDIA AND SOCIETY
TOPIC: MEDIA AND SOCIETY WITH RELATION TO NEWSPAPERS AS A FORM OF NEWS MEDIA DATE: 10 DECEMBER 2009
In this research paper, I am going to talk broadly on my understanding, after doing all research, of media and its effect in the society with relation to newspapers as an important and integral form of news media in the society. I will give a brief but concise introduction of newspapers in general. I will talk about the importance of newspapers to the society and how over the years, it has enforced itself on the society and how it has achieved that. I will see whether theories such as the ‘Hypodermic Needle Model’ and ‘Public Sphere’ theories can be applied when focusing on newspapers. In addition, I will talk about Bignell, J (1997) and his views on ‘Media Semiotics’ concerning newspapers. In addition, to conclude this research paper, I will give a detailed explanation on what I believe should be the role of newspapers as a form of news media to the society. Whether they have achieved all that society expects from them, or, they are yet to attain that maximum point of satisfaction from the society. Lastly, I will talk about the depth in which newspapers are actually influencing the society and how they can help in changing the views of the masses thereby helping to shape up the society to becoming a more positive one. INTRODUCTION TO NEWSPAPERS
A newspaper, according to the Oxford English Dictionary, is said to be a ‘’printed publication, now usually issued daily or weekly, consisting of folded unstapled sheets and containing news, frequently with the addition of advertisements, photographs, articles, and correspondence; the organization or office issuing such a publication.’’ A wide variety of material has been published in newspapers, including editorial opinions, criticism, persuasion and op-eds; obituaries; entertainment features such as crosswords, Sudoku and horoscopes; weather news and forecasts; advice, gossip, food and other columns; critical reviews of movies, plays and restaurants; classified ads; display ads, editorial cartoons and comic strips. Newspapers are very essential to the society, over the past centuries; have been relayed to the society in different ways, and have been evolving ever since. In the beginning, the first newspapers were more like government announcement bulletins and authorised by Julius Caesar. This means they were probably fully controlled by the government. This was in Ancient Rome and were called ‘’_Acta Diuma’’, they were carved in metal or stone and posted in public areas. Moveable type newspapers came during the modern era, at the beginning of the 17th century. However, the first officially recognised newspaper is that of Lohan Carolus’ ‘’Relation aller Fürnemmen und gedenckwürdigen Historien__’’_, published in 1605 in Strasbourg. By the early 19th century, many cities in Europe, as well as North and South America, published newspaper type publications and the contents were vastly shaped by different views such as regional and cultural preferences. In addition, advances in printing technology related to the Industrial Revolution, enabled newspapers to become an even more widely circulated means of communication. For example, in 1814, ‘The Times’ (London) acquired a printing press capable of making a thousand impressions per minute. In newspaper production, there are different categories of newspaper printed and published for reading. We have daily newspapers, which are issued every day sometimes with the exceptions of Sundays and national holidays. There are weekly newspapers and these tend to be smaller than daily papers and in some cases, there are some papers published twice or three times a week. Then we have national newspapers, which circulate nationwide. There is also a group of newspapers, which can be categorised as international newspapers. Some, such as The...