NUR-CCM MASTER’S PROGRAMME IN PEACESTUDIES & CONFLICT TRANSFORMATION
HISTORY OF DEVELOPMENT: THEORIES & STRATEGIES
Lecturer: Dr. Christopher KAYUMBA
Topic of Discussion: Poverty has remained endemic because women are excluded in the development process.
VICTOR ADUSA POKU
MAULIDI A. MABAKILA
KHALID T. KABASHA
Wednesday 23 January 2013
From the second half of the twentieth century till today, the world has seen a tremendous advance in all means of development. The fast growing information technology has made the world smaller, thus facilitating economic development through the free market and instant business transaction worldwide. However, just as some countries or individuals within those countries grew richer, other countries or individuals within them became poorer, just as was predicted by Marxism in its criticism of capitalism. In fact, global poverty worsened as a result of the 2008 global recession. Poverty hit harder particularly in developing countries. The most affected people are women who constitute the majority of human beings worldwide. Efforts to help poor countries overcome this scourge that has been identified as a threat have been initiated in the Truman spirit. This manifested into developed countries providing aid to poor countries. However, in this effort to develop, the bigger part of humanity constituting women has been “excluded” from participation in the development process, hence slowing down the development process and thus worsening global poverty. INTERNATIONAL MEASURES
In fact, the United Nations Security Council had identified that gap and urged nations of the world to start involving women in the development process as well as promoting equal participation of women and men in all aspects of life (UNSC Resolution 1325 in the year 2000). Another resolution, SCR 1889 about strengthening that equal participation and develop indicators of measuring progress of 1325 was adopted in 2009. The efforts undertaken by the United Nations have created awareness about the issue, but the actual implementation of the Security Council Resolutions mentioned above are still very low to the extent that it can still be argued that Poverty has remained endemic because women are excluded in the development process. For the purposes of understanding, the key concepts in this paper will be defined within the development context. According to White (2002:33) Poverty is a multi-dimensional concept of deprivation that include material, health, education, social life, environmental quality, spiritual and political freedom. Deprivation with respect to any one of these can be called poverty. Development, as argued by Potter (2002: 59), involves a range of actors, from international agencies through the state, down to the individual, all of whom have a vested interest in how change and development are to proceed. Therefore, all facets of development depend both on political ideology and on moral prescriptions. This last aspect of development that involves moral prescriptions rings the alarm in the sense that inequality among men and women in the process of development is obvious. In fact, women have been ignored and excluded from the development process for so long. According to the United Nations’ UNWOMEN (Beijing Conference 1995) “more than 1 billion people in the world today, the great majority of whom are women, live in unacceptable conditions of poverty, mostly in the developing countries [...] In the past decade the number of women living in poverty has increased disproportionately to the number of men, particularly in developing countries [...] The empowerment of women is a critical factor in the eradication of poverty.” To a large extent, the assertion that poverty is endemic because women have been excluded in the development process cannot...