Med Terms

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Chapter 1:
• Combining form- the foundation of the word
• Suffix- the word ending
• Prefix- optional word beginning
• -a to -ae, vena to venae
• -us to -i, bronchus to bronchi
• -um to -a, atrium to atria
• -is to -es, diagnosis to diagnoses
• -ix to -ices, helix to helices
• -ex to -ices, apex to apices
• -is to -ides, iris to irides
• -nx to -nges, phlanx to phalanges
• -oma to omata, carcinoma to carcinomata
• -on to -a, mitochondrion to mitochondria
Chapter 2:
• Coronal plane- a vertical plane that divides the body into front and back sections • Anterior means front
• Posterior means back
• Dorsal supine is lying on the back
• Prone is lying facedown
• Anteroposterior direction- front to back
• Postanterior- back to front
• Sagittal plane- is a vertical plane that divides the body into right and left • Medial- moving toward middle section
• Lateral- moving toward the side
• Transverse plane- divides body into superior and inferior sections • Cephalad- moving toward the head
• Caudad- moving toward the tailbone
• Proximal- moving toward the body
• Distal- moving away from the body
• Psychiatry- medical treatment of the mind
• Radiology- study and use of x-rays, sound waves and other forms of radiation and energy to diagnose diseases and conditions • Oncology- study of cancerous tumors or masses
• Dentistry- specialty of teeth
• Pharmacology- study of medicines and drugs
• Neonatology- study of new babies at birth
• Pediatrics- practice of children and their medical treatment • Geriatrics- practice of elderly and their medical treatment • Auscultation- using a stethoscope to listen to the sounds of the heart, lungs or intestines • Percussion- using the finger of one hand to tap on the finger of the other that’s spread over a body cavity • Acute- sudden in nature and severe in intensity

• Chronic- continuing for 3+ months
• Exacerbation- sudden worsening of symptoms or signs
• Remission- temporary improvement
Chapter 3: Gastroenterology
• Gastrointestinal system- body system that begins at mouth continues the thoracic cavity and fills abdominopelvic cavity, it digests food, absorbs nutrients and removes undigested material from the body • Deglutition- moves food into throat or pharynx

• Saliva- lubricant that moistens food as it is chewed
• Mastication- process of chewing
• Esophagus- muscular tube connecting pharynx to stomach
• Peristalsis- using contractions to move food from esophagus to stomach • Esophageal sphincter- at distal end of esophagus
• Pyloric sphincter- distal end of stomach
• Stomach- large sac in upper abdominal cavity producing hydrochloric acid, pepsinogen and gastrin to help digest 1. Cardia
2. Fundus
3. Body
4. Pylorus
• Rugae- deep folds
• Chyme- mixture of partially digested food, saliva, digestive enzymes and stomach fluids • Small intestine- long, hollow tube receiving chyme from stomach while producing three digestive enzymes; lactase, maltase and sucrase 1. Duodenum- 10 inch, c-shaped segment beginning at stomach and ending at jejunum 2. Jejunum- 8 foot segment that twists and turns in abdominal cavity 3. Ileum- 12 foot segment where nutrients are absorbed in

-villi small, thin structures projecting into lumen (central, open area), they increase amount of surface area to maximize food nutrient absorption • Large intestine- larger, hollow tube receiving undigested material and some water from the small intestine 1. Cecum- short sac, appendix hangs off end

2. Colon- longest part of large intestine
1. Ascending colon, by liver
2. Transverse colon, by spleen
3. Descending colon
4. Sigmoid colon, s-shaped curve joining rectum
3. Rectum- short, straight segment connecting to anus
4. Anus- external opening
• Haustra- puckered pouches in large intestinal wall
• Liver- large, dark red-brown organ in upper abdomen
• Hepatocytes- liver...
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