Mechanisation is providing human operators with machinery that assists them with the muscular requirements of work or displaces muscular work. In some fields, mechanization includes the use of hand tools. In modern usage, such as in engineering or economics, mechanization implies machinery more complex than had tools and would not include simple devices such as an un-geared horse or donkey mill. Automation/Mechanisation has had a notable impact in a wide range of industries beyond manufacturing (where it began). Once-ubiquitous telephone operators have been replaced largely by automated telephone switchboards and answering machines. Medical processes such as primary screening in electrocardiography or radiography and laboratory analysis of human genes, sera, cells, and tissues are carried out at much greater speed and accuracy by automated systems. Automated teller machines have reduced the need for bank visits to obtain cash and carry out transactions. In general, automation has been responsible for the shift in the world economy from industrial jobs to service jobs in the 20th and 21st centuries. My friend, who worked in the field of publishing, told me that a lot of jobs are gone, many in layout and production, since computers do layout and design faster and more accurately. Here’s just a glimpse of how much the world is changing around us. * Use of Electronic Computer in the world increased from 0 in 1960 to more than 1.6 million in 1988. * Robots were an absolute rare in 1970’s but in 1990 more than 75 thousand robots were in operation. * Industrial microcomputers in US rose from 0 in 1977 to 3 million in 1985. Q1Will Robots/Automation/Mechanisation spoil our lives?
Q2Will Robots/Automation/Mechanisation ingest human jobs?
Q3What will be the impact of Robots/Automation/Mechanisation on Human Life? Exercise 2
Fear of Mechanisation/Automation
Early production machinery, such as the glass bottle blowing machine 1890’s, required a lot of operator involvement. By the 1920s fully automatic machines, which required much less operator attention, were being used; thus alienating well over than a hundred thousand jobs worldwide. Similarly in agriculture through replacement of manual labor or animal labor and simple hand tools with electrical, steam, or internal combustion engine–powered machinery. This can be as simple as foot-powered open-drum threshers, to more complex two-wheel tractors, to larger four-wheel tractors, to GPS-guided combine harvesters. Mechanization of agriculture has led to a dramatic decline in the portion of the population engaged in food production. Gallup Organisation, is primarily a research-based performance-management consulting company that uses proven behavioral economic principles to improve organizational performance. Some of Gallup's key practice areas are - Employee Engagement, Customer Engagement and Well-Being. In 1939 Gallup Organization conducted a survey of people’s opinions and concluded that machines are responsible for unemployment. Exercise 3
Computers, cell phones and the Internet are just a few of the technological marvels created over the last few decades that have brought tremendous changes into our lives. Now we can communicate with our families, friends and coworkers from anywhere at any time just by picking up a cell phone or connecting to the Internet. These and other new “consumer” technologies unquestionably have eased the lives of millions of people in many ways. For Military the use of tracked armoured vehicles, particularly armoured personnel carriers, to move troops that would otherwise have marched or ridden trucks into combat. Mechanization dramatically improved the mobility and fighting capability of infantry. The main advantages of Mechanisation/Automation are:
* Replacing human operators in tasks that involve hard physical or monotonous work. * Replacing humans in tasks done in dangerous environments...