Pierre Chandon INSEAD J. Wesley Hutchinson Eric T. Bradlow University of Pennsylvania Scott H. Young Perception Research Services, Inc.
Version: Chandon Hutchinson Bradlow Young chapter 06-30-06.doc
Pierre Chandon is Assistant Professor of Marketing at INSEAD, Boulevard de Constance, 77300 Fontainebleau, France, Tel: +33 (0)1 60 72 49 87, Fax: +33 (0)1 60 74 61 84, email: firstname.lastname@example.org. J. Wesley Hutchinson is Stephen J. Heyman Professor and Professor of Marketing at The Wharton School, University of Pennsylvania, 700 Jon M. Huntsman Hall, 3730 Walnut Street, Philadelphia, PA 19104, Tel: (215) 898 6450, email: email@example.com. Eric T. Bradlow is the K.P. Chao Professor and Professor of Marketing, Statistics, and Education at The Wharton School, University of Pennsylvania, 700 Jon M. Huntsman Hall, 3730 Walnut Street, Philadelphia, PA 19104, Tel: (215) 898 8255, email: firstname.lastname@example.org. Scott H. Young is Vice President, Perception Research Services, Inc. One executive Drive, Fort Lee NJ 07024, Tel: (201) 346 1600, email: email@example.com.
Consumer behavior at the point of purchase is influenced by out-of-store memory-based factors (e.g., brand preferences) and by in-store attention-based factors (e.g., shelf position and number of facings). In today’s cluttered retail environments, creating memory-based consumer pull is not enough; marketers must also create “visual lift” for their brands—that is, incremental consideration caused by in-store visual attention. The problem is that it is currently impossible to precisely measure visual lift. Surveys can easily be conducted to compare pre-store intentions and post-store choices but they do not measure attention. They cannot therefore tell whether ineffective in-store marketing was due to a poor attention-getting ability—“unseen and hence unsold”—or to a poor visual lift—“seen yet still unsold”. Eye-tracking studies have shown that eye-movements to brands displayed on a supermarket shelf are valid measures of visual attention and are generally correlated with brand consideration (Pieters and Warlop 1999; Russo and Leclerc 1994). However, they have not provided a method for separating the effects of attention and memory on consumer point-of-purchase decisions. More specifically, they have not shown that attention to a brand causes consideration, rather than memory for a considered brand causing visual search for that brand. In this chapter, we show how commercially-available eye-tracking data can be used to decompose a brand’s consideration into its memory-based baseline and its visual lift. To achieve this goal, we develop a parsimonious decision-path model of visual attention and brand consideration. We apply this model to eye-movements and brand consideration data collected by Perception Research Inc., the leading US provider of eye-tracking studies for marketing research. Our results confirm the importance of visual-based factors in driving brand consideration using a richer and more realistic setting than in existing studies. The two studies also provide new insight into consumer’s decision-making process at the point of purchase, and particularly on the interplay between consideration decisions and visual attention to prices and packages. Finally, we 1
show how the decomposition can help decide which brands of a shelf display should be selected for enhanced P-O-P marketing activities. In the first section of the chapter, we present a framework for the effects of memory and attention at the point of purchase and review the data and methods available to measure these effects. In the second section, we describe the procedure, stimuli, and key descriptive findings of two studies that measured the eye movements and consideration decisions of consumers while they were looking at supermarket shelf displays. In the third section, we introduce a...